2024 PSY360 PSY 360 Week 3 Quiz 100% All Correct Assignment Help
PSY 360 Week 3 Quiz Question 1 The calling to mind of previously stored information is known as 2023
PSY 360 Week 3 Quiz Question 1 The calling to mind of previously stored information is known as: • A. retrieval • B. encoding • C. storage • D. forgetting • E. retention Encoding occurs when: • A. information is presented to our senses. • B. information is translated into a form that other cognitive processes can use. • C. information is stored over a period of time. • D. information is called back from storage. • E. information is used in problem solving or decision making. When we cannot retrieve information from memory, we say that _____ has occurred. • A. forgetting • B. a memory trace • C. sensory decay • D. encoding failure • E. secondary memory Unattended information is stored briefly in: • A. sensory memory • B. short-term memory • C. long-term memory • D. working memory • E. secondary memory The central executive in working memory is hypothesized to have the function of: • A. directing the flow of information • B. controlling an unlimited amount of resources and capacity • C. carrying out subvocal rehearsal to maintain verbal material in memory • D. maintaining visual material in memory through visualization • E. storing the meaning of complex verbal material Words from the beginning of a list are more likely to be recalled than words from the middle of the list. This phenomenon is known as the _____ effect. • A. recency • B. primacy • C. forgetting • D. interference • E. memory trace Question 7 One basic physiological mechanism for learning is the ____ rule, which states that if a synapse between two neurons is repeatedly activated at about the same time the postsynaptic neuron fires, the chemistry of the synapse changes. • A. Carlson • B. Hebb • C. Baddeley • D. Tulving • E. icon Question 8 The term “anterograde amnesia” refers to: • A. the loss of the ability to form new memories • B. the loss of the ability to recall old events • C. the loss of short-term memory • D. the loss of sensory memory • E. the loss of all memory ability Question 9 The _____ component of working memory is thought to be a temporary storage system that interacts with long-term memory and the other components of working memory to facilitate the transfer of information to long-term memory. • A. episodic buffer • B. visuospatial sketchpad • C. central executive • D. phonological loop • E. semantic buffer Sensory memories exist for every sensory modality. • A. True • B. False Question 11 Psychologists believe that the capacity of long-term memory is: • A. unlimited • B. 7 + 2 items • C. 18 items • D. 5000 items • E. 50,000 items Question 12 The code in long-term memory is based on: • A. sound • B. visual imagery • C. meaning • D. both sound and visual imagery • E. both sound and meaning Question 13 Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve demonstrates that: • A. forgetting is rapid at first and then levels off • B. forgetting is slow at first and then speeds up • C. forgetting occurs at a steady pace, beginning immediately after learning • D. no forgetting occurs until 24 hours after learning • E. forgetting reaches a peak about 3 days after learning Question 14 Proactive interference refers to the fact that: • A. new material can disrupt the recall of previously learned material • B. previously learned material can disrupt the learning of new material • C. the passage of time leads to memory decay • D. active interference can strengthen a memory trace • E. memories can become stronger over time Question 15 According to the retrieval cue explanation of interference, you are more likely to forget where you parked your car in a lot where: • A. you have never parked before • B. you have always parked in the same place • C. you have parked frequently, but in many different spaces • D. you parked a year ago, but not more recently • E. you parked yesterday Question 16 “Cramming” for exams tends to be ineffective because of the: • A. chunking effect • B. spacing effect • C. state-dependence effect • D. context effect • E. encoding specificity effect Question 17 Your memory of your first college lecture would be an example of: • A. semantic memory • B. episodic memory • C. implicit memory • D. working memory • E. iconic memory Question 18 Studies of flashbulb memory indicate that: • A. stronger emotional responses to an event are associated with less detailed memories • B. more retellings of the event are associated with more accurate memories • C. flashbulb memories are no more accurate than memories for more mundane life events • D. people are less confident in the accuracy of flashbulb memories than they are about more ordinary memories • E. flashbulb memories are only created for positive emotional events Question 19 Studies of eyewitness memory: • A. support Bartlett’s idea of memory as a constructive process • B. reveal surprisingly accurate memories of stressful events • C. suggest that confidence is an important attribute of an accurate witness • D. show that witnesses are remarkably resistant to misleading information • E. help us to understand why eyewitnesses almost never make mistakes Question 20 Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, researchers have shown that 80% of participants remember words on a list that were not actually included. • A. True • B. False Question 21 In Reber’s studies of nonanalytic concept formation in which participants attempted to learn to categorize letter strings derived from complex “grammars,” • A. participants who learned letter strings that followed the grammar made fewer errors than control participants learning random strings • B. participants who were told that the letter strings followed complex rules performed better than did those participants who did not know this • C. the best performance came from participants who successfully figured out the rule for generating the letter strings • D. memorizing exemplars was an ineffective strategy in category learning • E. performance never rose above chance level for any participants Question 22 The schema view of concept formation assumes that: • A. there are clear boundaries among individual schemata • B. there is cognitive economy among concepts • C. information is abstracted across instances • D. no information is stored about actual instances • E. schemata contain characteristics of categories, but no information about how categories are related to each other Question 23 You might have a “script” for: • A. what a classroom looks like • B. what a “pet” is • C. what a “cat” is • D. what happens when you go to the barber/hairstylist • E. what rap music sounds like Question 24 If information from a story is presented in scrambled order, • A. people actually recall it better than if it had been presented in proper order, because they pay more attention to it • B. people recall just as much information as if it had been presented in proper order • C. people tend to recall it in the scripted order • D. people cannot recall any of the details of the story • E. we cannot predict how much will be recalled, or in what order Question 25 “Apple,” “piano,” and “table” are examples of basic-level categories. • A. True • B. False Question 26 Properties and facts are stored at the highest level possible, according to the principle of: • A. encoding specificity • B. connectionism • C. cognitive economy • D. typicality • E. lexical destiny Question 27 Conrad has found evidence that the statement “A shark can move” can be verified in the same amount of time as “An animal can move.” These results suggest that reaction time is best predicted by: • A. cognitive economy • B. frequency of association • C. encoding specificity • D. episodic memory • E. typicality Question 28 The word superiority effect is related to the idea of: • A. cognitive economy • B. schemata • C. typicality • D. spreading activation • E. prototypes Question 29 ACT models distinguish among three types of memory systems: • A. working memory, episodic memory, and declarative memory • B. semantic memory, episodic memory, and procedural memory • C. procedural memory, declarative memory, and semantic memory • D. working memory, declarative memory, and procedural memory • E. semantic memory, episodic memory, and concept memory 30 Which of the following is FALSE regarding a connectionist training “epoch”? A. It begins by generating a random output. B. Connection weights are initially set at random levels. C. Generated output patterns are compared with target patterns. D. Back propagation occurs over many trials. E. Connection weights are adjusted before the next target is input.