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Exercise: Starting Your Literature Review

1-2 pages

double spaced

Whenever examining prior research, you should be asking yourself three main things for every study—what did they do, what did they find, what does it lead to? For this study provide a bulleted list of quick answers to each of the following questions, in your own words (do not use quotes from the study):

Identify the study: Use APA citation info

APa Citation provided here : Nedelman, M., Selig, R., & Azad, A. (2018, December 19). #JUUL: How social media hyped nicotine for a new generation. Retrieved August 13, 2019, from https://www.cnn.com/2018/12/17/health/juul-social-… Social Media influences teen electronic cigarette use.

1) What did they do? (This includes what the study was about—their variables( independent and dependent)/any important definitions—and what their basic methods were; don’t worry about their hypotheses, because it’s their results that matter, not what they WANTED to find)

2) What did they find?(If they did a survey, what was related/correlated with what? If they did an experiment, what were the differences between experimental conditions?)

3) What does it lead to? (Make the connection to your interests—how could it relate to your study?)

My study: Social medias influence on teens using electric cigarettes.

A MADE-UP EXAMPLE:

Suppose that you and your group members are interested in the following, fairly vague topic(s):

We want to look at what people “reveal” about themselves in the pictures they post on Instagram, or maybe how many “braggy” type pictures of themselves they post, and whether that’s related to how much they need to try to impress people or whether that affects impressions of them for others…

You search for studies about Instagram and find very few. L But you suppose you do find a study about disclosures on Facebook and relationships. It’s about status updates, not pictures, but it IS about “revealing” things (self-disclosures), and it’s got relationships in there, so hmmm….let’s see what you could do with it…

Study: Tennant, Smith, & Capaldi (2014). Getting personal on Facebook: Gender differences in narcissism and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Technological Intimacy, 11, 223-245.

(okay, I made this up, but pretend it’s a real study about Facebook, narcissism, and relationships) J

1) What did they do?

Survey study

IVs: Gender (self-identified M/F), Facebook disclosures (self-reported amountof disclosure; self-report of how often they post info about theirown feelings, and about theirown activities or achievements)

DVs: Narcissism (a psych scale regarding an inflated love of self, etc.); also relationship satisfaction with FB friends (looked at friendship, not romance)

2) What did they find?

For women, more self-disclosure about feelings was correlated with greater friendship satisfaction, but not with narcissicm;

For both genders, more self-disclosures about positive activities/achievements was associated with greater narcissism, but not with greater friendship satisfaction.

3) How could it relate to your study?

In looks like it’s the TYPE of disclosure that matters (not amount), and that narcissism may be motivation for disclosing about your achievements online. In other words, people who think particularly well of themselves appear to like to show that off to others. On Instagram, pictures are also often used to present yourself in a positive light, especially in relationships that are new or just beginning or to try to increase followers. So, we might expect that people who “show off” more on Instagram are those who also have larger egos. Hmmm… And then there’s the question of whether the selfies result in a positive or negative impression among the people RECEIVING these pictures (i.e., does it “work” to show yourself off or does it end up backfiring and making people think you are egotistical or narcissistic?). In the study, people who disclosed about their achievements were not more satisfied in their friendships, so we might predict that showing that in pictures would not be effective…

But…it is also possible that people post such pictures because of the newness of the relationship and the sincere desire to show the other person what activities they enjoy and do well at. So, we should probably look up research about what people do (online or otherwise) in newer versus older friendships. OR it might be important to distinguish among different TYPE of pictures (goofy or self-demeaning selfies versus “show off” kinds of selfies)? Could be useful to find a study about that as well (what counts as “bragging” as opposed to just revealing stuff about yourself? What is the effect on impressions?). Could use a study about that…

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