The theory of evolution is used to describe the changes that have occurred with both plants and humans over the centuries. Although these changes occur in our bodies, they affect the phenotypes and genes within our bodies, meaning they cannot be seen with the bare eye. According to Charles Darwin, whose archeological works and findings are appreciated throughout the entire world, the process of evolution took place by natural selection, where organisms with many adaptable and reliable characteristics outlived the weak microorganisms in the ecosystem. Mostly, organisms with weak and undesirable traits died living behind a population that could strive for survival even in difficult times.
Going by the concept of natural selection, it is right to state that the process of evolution occurs gradually to species that live in different environments but share a common ancestry. That said, a better understanding of the issue can only be achieved by taking into consideration the phenotype and genetic constitution of these species to find out the level of adaptation to the new environments. Concerning genetic changes, different organisms have different genes that are responsible for the formation of proteins to create a body. These genes pass genetic information from one generation to the other and exist in various forms known as alleles. The changes or variations that occur during transmission of genetic material may be as a result of environmental conditions or mutations that force the organism to alter some of its traits for adaptation reasons. For example, most plant species have reduced their leaves so that they can reduce their surface areas, subsequently minimizing water loss.
Similarly, sexual reproduction involves coming together of two different organisms to create a unique offspring with a share of both genes. The variations and new genetic composition in the offspring allow them to adapt better and survive longer in their environments. Conversely, those with weak genes die and become extinct over time.
The evolutionary concept is not subjected to specific individuals within a population but the group as a collective whole. This is factual because any particular species is made up of individuals with a precise gene composition that never changes in their entire existence. The number of genes is what varies from one person to the other. In social groups, different individuals sustain their population through procreation, and in so doing, they create a gene pool with progressive traits. When such characteristics get transferred from generation to generation, evolution happens. Due to natural selection, weaker genes are eliminated within such populations, and only the strong traits are preserved. Adapted species, however, come to existence when those with more vulnerable genes reproduce to produce offspring with modified genes. Over a fixed duration, covering a couple of generations, genetic variations within a single group occur. Such changes become prominent, leading to a better and more adapted species, thus completing an evolution cycle. Another factor that affects evolution is sexual selection.
According to Darwin, there is a criterion that animals use in selecting the most suitable mating partner. This criterion is responsible for the inheritance of specific genes. In most instances, the female chooses its mate based on the male’s physical attributes, such as prominent masculinity and strength. Those that stand a better chance of winning mating partners usually have larger bodies, and their physical appeal is significantly more conspicuous than that of ordinary males. Being gifted with prominent features, however, comes with its disadvantages as they become an easy target in their natural environment. Such animals have to master survival traits to prolong their existence and pass their genes to the next generation. When the prominent features work against the survival of the strong in the population, it means that more of the weaker traits are the ones passed on, thus prolong the evolution cycle.