What is Research Paradigm – Explanation and Examples | Assignment Collections | assignmentcollections.com


The research paradigm is a decision-making model used in decision science, medical education and operations management. The research paradigm is not a theory in the traditional sense but rather a set of guiding perspectives on how to solve complex decision-related problems. The research paradigm can be used in healthcare organizations to make the best choices efficiently. We will discuss a research paradigm and provide some examples and explanations in this post.

What is Research Paradigm?

Your research is built on a philosophical framework known as a research paradigm. It provides a framework of assumptions and comprehensions upon which the theories and methods of your research study might be based. Ontology, epistemology, and research methods make up a research paradigm.

  1. The concept of ontology: tries to answer the question, “What is reality?” Does your research encompass a single reality? Ontological questions include: “Does God exist??? There are two possible answers to this question: “Yes, God exists,” or “No, God does not exist.”
  2. Knowledge is studied in epistemology: Essentially, it answers the question, “How can we know reality?” Epistemology encompasses the validity, parameters, and methods of acquiring knowledge. For instance, epistemological questions may include, “Is it possible to know whether God exists? ”
  3. The research methodology aims to answer the question: “How do we discover the answer?” This includes the process of collecting and analyzing data. Your methodology should explain how you conducted your research to demonstrate that your findings are valid.


The term “axiology” refers to the moral concerns that must be considered when developing a study proposal. It is the philosophical framework for reaching practical or ethical conclusions (Finnis, 1980). It entails establishing, assessing, and comprehending ideas of appropriate and inappropriate behaviour concerning the research. It considers the value we will assign to the various components of our study, the participants, the data, and the audience to which we will present the research findings. Simply put, it responds to the following query: What does ethics or ethical behaviour entail? Consider your respect for the human values of everyone who will be involved in or participate in your study endeavour while responding to this question. The following inquiries aid in this thought process.

What principles will you follow and direct you while you conduct your research? What should be done to uphold the rights of each participant? What moral concerns and traits should be taken into account? Which ethical, cultural, and intercultural issues arise, and how will I respond to them? How can I ensure participants’ goodwill? How can I conduct my study in a peaceful, respectful, and socially just way?

Epistemology and ontology together make up research philosophy. A research paradigm is made up of research methodology and research philosophy.

Research Paradigm Example


Positivists hold that there is just one reality that can be measured and comprehended. They’re, therefore, most likely to base their research on quantitative techniques. Positivism typically puts out a hypothesis that may be supported or refuted by statistical data analysis. Instead of focusing on the cause of a relationship between two variables, positivism prefers to examine if one exists.


Constructivists hold that there are numerous realities rather than a single reality or truth. They dedicate their time to deciphering and analyzing the significance of an action. Constructivists frequently employ qualitative research techniques that emphasize offering various viewpoints, such as case studies and interviews. The goal of constructivism is to explain “why.” For instance, rather than only determining the correlation between two variables, why do 25% of company employees consistently arrive late to work? (e.g., time of arrival at work and availability of nearby parking).


According to pragmatics, reality is continuously being reexamined and renegotiated in light of brand-new, unpredictably occurring circumstances. As a result, the study question itself determines the philosophy they utilize. In a single research endeavour, pragmatics frequently mixes positivist and constructivist concepts, using qualitative and quantitative techniques to examine various aspects of a research subject. According to them, the best research techniques most effectively address the research topic.

Combining Research Paradigms

Although constructivism and positivism are the two paradigms that dominate social science research, it is feasible to blend the two, as the discipline of psychology frequently does. Psychology commonly combines quantitative and qualitative techniques, demonstrating the field’s compatibility with many research paradigms (positivist and constructivist).

Types of Research Paradigm

Each of the following is multiple researched-based examples that show real-life results when applying each model:

Positive Paradigm

Positivism is widely used as a conceptual framework in scientific and quantitative research. Because positivists favour empirical hypothesis testing, quantitative analysis always adopts this methodology. Because it uses practical methods to examine the facts, positivism is valued in the pure sciences. In quantitative research, the methodology is based on a probabilistic model established via earlier studies. Positivism holds that the results of one study can be used for another of a similar kind, even if they are done in a different setting and under other circumstances. Scientific variables like volume, speed, density, strength, and weight all fit this description. For instance, if a scientific investigation confirms the theory that a delicate cotton tulle fabric will lose some of its natural strength if a certain after-finish is applied, these findings can be extrapolated to other similar materials that receive the same after-finish.

Interpretative Paradigm

The majority of qualitative social science research uses an interpretivism approach to study. According to interpretivism, human behaviour has multiple layers and cannot be predicted by pre-established probabilistic models. It is influenced by environmental variables other than genes and changes depending on the circumstances. Human behaviour is very different from an easy-to-control scientific variable. Numerous factors influence human behaviour, which is primarily subjective. Interpretivism, therefore, favours studying human behaviour in the real world instead of in a lab setting.

The Importance of Research Paradigms

Research paradigms are significant because they serve as a project’s philosophical foundation. Research paradigms impact how various academic disciplines (such as the sciences and the humanities) conduct their research. A suitable approach can be selected once a research philosophy has been established.

Knowing the philosophical underpinnings of your research can also improve the quality of your work and your success in any analyses you might be required to complete!

Research paradigms are also used to explain your knowledge better. In other words, it is merely a mind map of the data.

However, these techniques determine the best way to approach a problem. The problem is written by asking questions, while these paradigms are written as boxes.

For instance, if you wish to write about cancer, you must first explain what cancer is. What signs are present? Therefore, you must put them to make people comprehend what you are doing. It is convenient.

A Constructivist Approach to a Research Paradigm

Constructivism is a theory of learning that emphasizes how learners construct knowledge from their experiences rather than being empty receptacles into which knowledge is poured. It’s a learning theory that encourages students to be active participants in their education; it acknowledges that students bring their own experiences and beliefs to the classroom and, therefore, can’t be expected simply to accept what teachers tell them about the world.

Constructivism is also known as social constructivism or personal construct theory (PCS). The leading proponent of this theory is Jean Piaget. They believed that children were inherently curious about their environment and actively sought answers through play and experimentation with objects around them. He thought children had built-in mental processes that helped them learn new things such as language or math skills through experience rather than just being taught directly by an adult or older child (“Piaget & Inhelder,” n.d.). Some examples include:

  1. The nature of reality: Positivists see the world as objective, while constructivists see it as subjective and thus interpretable by humans.
  2. The role of science: Positivists believe that science is the best way to understand the world, while constructivists believe that there are many ways to understand reality, and some may be better than others. Still, none can be proven true or false.
  3. The role of the researcher: Positivists believe that researchers should remain objective and unbiased in their studies, while constructivists believe that researchers have biases and should acknowledge them when conducting research.

How To Shift Your Paradigm in 5 Steps

It takes time and continuous application of the subsequent stages for a paradigm shift to occur. Let’s explore them!

1. Select the paradigm element you want to change

Every paradigm has a recurring habit that makes it manifest. You must deal with any disorder that causes you always work inefficiently and feel confused about your life.

What central behaviour is keeping you from achieving the results you want, then? Consider this carefully, reflecting on your actions and the reasons for them.

You’re attempting to comprehend oneself at this level, dissecting the causes of your thoughts and behaviours. This will assist you in focusing your efforts when shifting your worldview.

2. Set goals in writing

It’s time to choose the outcome you want to achieve during the paradigm shift now that you know the one major obstacle preventing you from achieving what you desire.

I won’t repeat the clichés about making objectives you can find all over the internet, though. One of the greatest intellectuals the world has ever known will teach you.

“If you set a goal properly, you WILL receive what you want,” once remarked Bob Proctor, author of Your Were Born Rich and a master of paradigm shifts at the Proctor Gallagher Institute. Always.” In the essay How To Override Paradigms And Achieve Your Goals, he discussed this.

He asserts that no matter how intricate the processes in your subconscious mind are, you must make them irrelevant while creating goals. In other words, you shouldn’t make goals while considering what you can and cannot already do. You must express what you want.

His famous remark, “Set a goal to achieve something so large, so exhilarating that it excites you and scares you at the same time,” is widely recognized. So, proceed to the following phase after jotting down your desires for the model transition.

3. Develop mindsets that influence the paradigm shift

Change begins with a thought. However, they also change and disappear; if they aren’t raised, our subconscious cannot choose any of them.

You must thus take in pertinent knowledge and foster concepts that motivate you to advance if you want to make sure that your desire to change grows to the point where your limiting beliefs cannot hold you back.

You can cause a paradigm shift in your thoughts by doing the following:

  • Reading motivational books
  • Journaling
  • Residing in a community of forward-thinking people

Keep your actions in line with your paradigm-shifting objective as much as you can. This will support your desire to change and motivate you to keep going even when you don’t feel like it.

4. Start by doing uncomfortable things

You frequently don’t obtain results because your subconscious mind keeps you in your comfort zone. It is, after all, what you turn to when under pressure.

However, you must give up comfort to change your mental system. The subconscious will begin reprogramming itself to advance you once it becomes aware of this shift.

Whatever you feed it by consciously working toward your goals, the more pressure there will be on you to change. That is the little-known secret of mind programming.

5. Practice becoming who you want to be

Your goals outline the person you wish to become. And you won’t get there by continuing to exhibit those admirable qualities in the future. It all begins right now. Becoming the person you desire entails:

  • You can start planning now to become more organized.
  • Keeping to your plans is essential if you want to stop procrastinating.
  • Using marketing strategies is necessary if you want to run a successful firm.
  • Forcing yourself to work out to improve your health.

Bottom Line

In conclusion, the research paradigm helps reduce discrepancies in the database by providing a typical application. The goal of the database is to provide ease and clarity to future data entry workers. Using the research paradigm, the database can easily be analyzed for the various databases to develop its quality database.


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