There has been a significant uptick in pet adoption as per the information given by the pet shelters and rescue agencies. During the Covid-19 period, many people in the United States of America adopted pets, either cats or dogs, among others pets to act as a companion during the pandemic. However, it has been noted that these friends are being returned to their homes after the end of the pandemic. Cats and dogs are among pets easily domesticated in the United States of America. Following the WHO announces the lockdown proceeding the Covid-19 pandemic, there was a reinforcement on people to work from home, unemployment, and social distancing. A lot of time was spent at home, which prompted an increased adoption of cats and dogs. Animal shelters in the United States of America and the United Kingdom have experienced emptiness due to the increased adoption (Ho, Hussain & Sparagano, 444). However, amidst the pandemic, there have been reports of abandonment of the pets due to the rumors that they are likely to spread the virus. Also, there has been an increase in stray cats and dogs after the Covid-19 pandemic ended. (Ho, Hussain & Sparagano, 444). This essay will expound on the support that pets give to people mentally and psychologically, pet adoption during and after covid-19.

Adopting and owning a pet is often associated with tremendous and improved mental health. These reduce stress and depression and enhance the quality of life. Among the advantages associated with pets for mental uses, pets can give up to ten reasons why they should be encouraged, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. Pets, especially dogs and cats, contribute to stability to mental health by providing unconditional love to their owners. Pets are known to love without ceasing. They don’t judge. Unlike human beings, they are always in a happy mood, especially when with their owners. Mostly, pets like dogs are always loyal and love spending time with their owners. This love is probably unconditional and vital for mental health and is, therefore, aids the release of dopamine by the brain. This is a pleasure-sensing chemical.

Pets contribute to social support and connection. During the covid-19 pandemic, some rules and regulations prevented humans from connecting socially. However, pets were the only source of social relationships among adults and teens. Social anxiety is quickly released because pets always provide a topic for social discussion. This shows that pets like dogs, ducks, and cats are counter social isolation. Therefore, it is a sure deal to say that pets help improve mental health among their owners due to their social connection. Social connection is essential in ensuring an enhanced cognitive function. People can develop feelings of trust and empathy, emotions can be regulated, provides an optimistic outlook, and people’s self-esteem is drastically improved. There are lowered rates of depression and anxiety. This is a surety that pets contribute to mental health.

During the Covid-19 period, pets were essential in building relationship skills among the owners’ families. Case studies and research show that children are likely to maintain good relationships among themselves if they have a mental relationship with their pets. Kids’ cognitive development can echo from dogs as they quickly follow human cues. Dog’s essential makes life easy through socializing. A study showed that children with autism could be helped to develop social relationships when they keep pets like guinea pigs. Teens who interact with horses as pets build meaningful personal relationships. These relationships developed from pets can be transferred into good relationships with family and friends (Janette et al.25-33).

To continue, pets help in mental health by building healthy living, and this is through the fact that pets need to be taken care of daily. This routine results in developing healthy habits. The physical activity involved in taking care of pets, for instance, walking, hiking, and running, is essential to the owner who benefits from the exercise. Outdoor exercise during nature walking pets is also suitable for mental health. The fact that pets need feeding very early and on a regular schedule makes the owner master the art of waking up early and starting the day. Lastly, pets help people in developing self-care practices. For instance, horses, cats, dogs, and pigs need regular grooming to ensure that they transfer the same to their self-care. Therefore, pets support psychological and mental health (Janette et al.25-33).

Pets contribute to mental and psychological health, and they help one recover from mental illness. For instance, during the Covid-19, people infected with the virus developed mental stress and depression. Adoption of a pet at that particular time is essential in recovery. According to a meta-analysis from a medical database, pets are critical in ensuring mental health among people. Looking closely at those diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia, 60% said that pets helped them recover. Most of the time, pets help people with distractions from hallucinations, suicidal thinking, and rumination. Psychologically, pets provide support unconditionally, especially to people who don’t receive it from other people from their families and friends. It is, therefore, reasonable to incorporate pets into the daily routines of patients battling psychological and mental problems (Aviva et al., 11-128).

Pets are essential in increasing people’s well-being as well as self-esteem. According to Psychologists at Saint Louis University and Miami University, their research suggested the importance of pets to pet owners. These reasons are; that they cannot feel lonely, people feel preoccupied and more conscientious, they are also physically fit, improved self-esteem, are more extroverted, and less fearful. Therefore, it is evident that pets, especially cats and dogs, are essential in ensuring that the owners are fit psychologically and emotionally (Phillipou et al., 423-426).

The last aspect is the power of animal-assisted therapy amongst mental and psychological patients. There is an excellent connection between mental health and pets. Animal-assisted therapy programs are essential in treating patients with health problems. Therapies like Equine Assisted Therapy have been used since the 1990s to aid teen-related mental programs. A horse connection among human beings aids in mental health treatment. This is done through a direct experience that is non-verbal and powerful (Phillipou et al., 423-426).

Pets were essential during the coronavirus pandemic; up to 23 million Americans adopted pets after the Covid-19 lockdown on March 2020; after the WHO declared lockdown, most citizens in the world did not know what to do with heightened rules on lockdown, social gatherings, etc. most of them saw the need to adopt at least a pet to take the position of human beings. The adoption of pets, especially dogs and cats, surged at the beginning of the pandemic; however, this was not sustained during the pandemic (Ho, Hussain & Sparagano, 444). There were speculations that these pets would contribute to the spread of the vaccine, and the fact that many people had lost their income and feeding and maintaining these pets became a problem. Many people in the United States of America resorted to abandoning these visitors. On the brighter side, the coming of Covid-19 came with a lot of negative impacts. Many people were affected mentally, economically, physically, and psychologically. Social distancing inhibited people from socializing, and losing jobs led to mental and psychological trauma. The pets, therefore, were there to take the position of the company. They aided in the healing of those affected by the virus, reduced stress, and depression, a feeling of love was ensured, pets helped in an increased sense of responsibility, and healthy routines were incorporated. As much as pets were abandoned along the way, they served a great purpose to the American community when social distancing was highly prohibited (Aviva et al., 11-128).

Many pet rescuers and shelters saw a significant increase in the adoption of pets at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Many uphold the good homes offered to the animals. However, at the end of the pandemic, that is mid-2021, many adoptees are either returning the pets to their homes or abandoning them all over. When there are changes in any aspect of life, pets are always the victim of change; for instance, the relinquishing of the Covid-19 protocol made pets an item of change as people were returning to their everyday lives, and they found no need to harbor pets again. There have been an increased number of stray cats and dogs on the streets. In Los Angeles and New York City, an increased number of pets returned and dumped after the Covid-19 pandemic ended.” We have received up to ten inquiries per month of people who can’t take care of the pets anymore and would love to return them to the shelters.” After Covid-19, shelters for the pets have flooded, and pet sitters are going through a lot, taking care of overwhelming numbers. This is to conclude that people were only interested in pets, especially dogs and cats, for what they were to gain during the pandemic.

To conclude, During the Covid-19 period, many people in the United States of America adopted pets, either cats or dogs, to act as a companion for the pandemic. However, it has been noted that these friends are being returned to their homes after the end of the pandemic. Cats and dogs are among pets easily domesticated in the United States of America. Following the WHO announces the lockdown proceeding the Covid-19 pandemic, there was a reinforcement on people to work from home, unemployment, and social distancing. However, pets are essential in the life of human beings, not just to be used during pandemics but during their entire lives. For instance, pets have many advantages than disadvantages when adopted. They help lower stress hormones, reduce stress, diminish childhood anxiety, make pets feel wanted, and increase well-being and self-esteem by adopting pets. Pets are vital in the recovery of mentally ill patients. Health habits can be built by taking care of pets, relationship skills can be built quickly from an early age, social connectedness, and unconditional love.


President Kim Dae-Jung of South Korea developed a policy in 1998 to moderate North Korea’s stance toward the country. The concept was inspired by traditional Korean techniques of dealing with adversaries, such as offering presents to dissuade them from harming others. The approach arose due to rising economic disparities between the two Koreas, with the North being serious with economic failure while the South was creating its nation thanks to economic prosperity during President Park Chung’s administration from the 1970s through the 1990s. North Korea was on the verge of bankruptcy at the time. It was devoting a large portion of its resources to its military and nuclear programs, causing prevalent starvation among its citizens. The Sunshine Policy was designed to bridge the economic divide between the two countries and improve contact. This strategy was in effect until 2008 when the Rho Moo administration Hyun’s tenure ended. Despite making significant progress, the sunshine policy has proven to fail.

What effect has the Sunshine Policy had on the Korean Peninsula?


The Sunshine Policy seems to have encouraged cultural interactions and active economic between the two countries, as well as reinforced inter-Korean associations in many ways. . When North Korea took a hostile stance against the South, global investors regarded the South Korean market as unbalanced and billions of dollars departed in a single day. For South Korea, there was also a considerable economic benefit. The IMF had recently bailed out South Korea at the outset of Kim Dea’s presidency. Therefore the South had to avoid an aggressive stance with the North. In this sense, South Korea’s economic recovery from its low point was supported by the policy of cohabitation and reconciliation (DIENNA, 2019). The Sunshine Policy had more defined and broad goals than any former North Korean policy. In addition to directly impacting inter-Korean relations, the Sunshine Policy was extremely beneficial to the South Korean economy.


Many people criticized the initiative, believing that the North was manipulating the South with a “stick-and-carrot” strategy. One South boat was sunk, six sailors were killed, and 19 were injured in the Second Battle of Yeonpyeong in 2002, one of more than ten significant armed provocations by North Korea. Following these incidents, there was considerable criticism that South Korea’s financial support, similar to West Germany’s help to East Germany, was used to develop nuclear weapons and military forces rather than humanitarian causes for North Korean residents.

According to some conservatives, the Sunshine Policy has weakened the US-South Korean relationship over the last decade. By closing with North Korea and providing massive financial aid to the North, the ROK-US relationship deteriorated or halted, limiting the South Korean economy’s potential in the early 2000s. Finally, some detractors claim that the Democrats employed the Sunshine Policy to gain an electoral advantage in Southern politics, but this is questionable (DIENNA, 2019).

Did it accomplish what it set out to do?

The major goal of the policy was to unstiffen North Korea’s place toward the South by fostering contact and offering economic support. According to three basic precepts that guided national security strategy, no armed incitement by the North shall be acknowledged. In any form, the South will not strive to captivate the North. In the South, collaboration and resolution are actively sought and fostered. These concepts were intended to convey that the South’s goal is peaceful coexistence rather than regime change, rather than absorbing the North or undermining its leadership. During this strategy, the effort to avoid using the phrase reunification in favor of a more nuanced statement is compatible with encouraging integration rather than absorption (Straub, 2018).

North Korea’s regime was well aware of widespread concerns that forced incorporation or collaboration with the global community would strip the country of its national identity. Two other essential policy elements were also identified by Kim’s administration (Bae, 2020). The parting of economics and politics was the first. In truth, the South’s commercial sector was granted wider liberty to invest in North Korea, but its role was confined to humanitarian assistance. The original goal was to boost the North’s economy while also causing a shift in its economic policies; however, the second goal was eventually (at least publicly) dropped.

The second component was the North’s demand for reciprocity. The two countries were expected to treat each other as equals at first, making concerns and conciliations as necessary. The South’s considerable backtracking on this premise in the face of unforeseen North-South resistance was the source of most of the strategy’s criticism. It came to an end barely two months into the Sunshine period when South Korea requested the building of a family reunion center in exchange for fertilizer help; North Korea decried this as horse-trading, and the discussions were terminated. A year later, the South stated that its objective would be “flexible reciprocity” based on Confucian principles; as the relationship’s “older brother,” the South would give support without seeking immediate or precise reciprocity (DIENNA, 2019).

The South also promised to send humanitarian aid without expecting anything in return. Despite persistent shortages and economic difficulties, the policy was based on the assumption that the North’s government would not fall, crumble, or change itself, even if the South applied great pressure. Military tensions were meant to be reduced by bilateral and international accords. It is vital to normalize economic and political relations between the US, North Korea, and Japan (Choi, 2018).

Have the two countries’ relations improved?

The context of South Korea’s choice to collaborate with North Korea instead of taking a traditional stance implies a change in internal politics. After the Cold War, the Sunshine Policy “ushered in an age of extraordinary perplexity in South Korea on whether to designate North Korea as an ally or enemy.” As a result of the policy, there has been increased political contact between the two nations and several significant events in inter-Korean relations (Choi, 2018).

Many conservative South Korean observers believe that the Sunshine Policy is to blame for the deterioration of the US-South Korean alliance; they claim that it has directed the South to prioritize the North’s benefits above those of its friend, the United States and that it has steered South Korean politicians to awkwardly voiceless and censor condemnation of the North, even disregarding the sacrifices of their soldiers, to evade displeasing the North. They claim that this is counterproductive to the South’s national interest in staying a US ally and jeopardizes the prospects for a peaceful and smooth reunion. The South Korean government has been chastised internationally and domestically for frequently abstaining from UN votes denouncing North Korea’s human rights record. The administration justifies the abstentions by claiming that inter-Korean ties are unique. South Korea’s motivations for this strategy have sparked conspiracy theories. According to one North Korean defector who worked on weapons systems, South Korean intelligence intended to keep one North Korean defector’s account concealed because it would doubt the policy (Straub, 2018).

Is it possible to call this policy a success?

Kim Dae-Jung, a North Korean journalist and defector who lived nine years in a North Korean prison camp, made a mistake by assisting the North Korean regime without requiring the North to improve its human rights. “It’s crucial to recognize that North Koreans are starved not as a consequence of a shortage of help from South Korea or the United States, but as a result of a denial of freedom,” Kang continues, refuting assertions that the Sunshine Policy has resulted in a peaceful agreement between the North and the South. Aid serves to draw a line in the sand with the government while also prolonging hunger, which is a blatant contradiction (Malevich, 2020).

Furthermore, the concept of “flexible reciprocity” has been challenged as an unattainable objective that will eventually result in hurdles in inter-Korean cooperation. Instead of considering North Korea as a full equal to its might, South Korea took the stand that the resilient party should pause until the weaker party has increased sufficient capacity to reciprocate. The ‘time-differential’ in the collaboration between the two countries failed, in theory, help to restore trust and cooperation but instead caused additional issues such as a lack of transparency and an interruption in fully understanding the policy’s consequences, which did not profit the general public (Choi, 2018).

Criticizers argue that the Sunshine Policy was implemented for domestic political gain in South Korea rather than to increase the possibilities of reunification or to harm North Korea’s dictatorship. They argue that the North’s continued criminal activities and aggravation. Critics also believe that the South must request that the North release imprisoned South Koreans and the remnants of POWs from the Korean War in exchange for humanitarian assistance. Some regard the Kaesong Industrial Park as little more than a means for large South Korean corporations to hire lower-cost workers (Bae, 2020).

International repercussions

North Korea’s military and nuclear posture improved due to the Sunshine Policy. North Korea’s leadership, according to Kim Suk-young, is “both powerful and fragile,” is influenced by “both outside and interior influences,” and is impacted by its interactions with other countries when deciding whether or not to militarize and nuclearize. The North Korean administration has yet to decide on a course of action. He also noted that North Korea has never altered its behavior in response to international pressure to become more peaceful. It is unlikely to do so in the future (Straub, 2018). When relating the frequency of North Korean missile and nuclear tests through the Sunshine approach period to the current unfavorable policy enacted since the Lee government, the idea that the Sunshine Policy reduced tensions may be warranted. In the eight years after 2008, North Korea has piloted five nuclear tests and eight missile launches, compared to one nuclear test and three missile launches before 2008. However, this could suggest that the North has developed the necessary technical abilities to perform large-scale nuclear and missile tests in 2008.

The restoration of the Sunshine Policy has been called the “Moonshine Policy” in honor of President Moon Jae’s efforts to re-establish contact with North Korea and coordinate with Washington. While Moon deserves praise for his hard work to bring and uphold peace to the Korean Peninsula, growing military tensions between South Korea and the US have harmed inter-Korean affairs since 2019. The disarmament of North Korea has been halted since 2019, but weapons testing has escalated (Malevich, 2020). South Korea halted support freights to the North and placed its forces on high alert on October 9, 2006, ahead of the nuclear and missile tests. There was great anxiety about how South Korea could sustain a supportive strategy toward the North in the face of such provocative behavior. Nonetheless, the South Korean government insisted on preserving key features of the Sunshine Policy (Bae, 2020).


The sunshine strategy has been a failure, despite significant advances. The Sunshine Policy is no longer in effect, but the South Korean government has yet to make an official announcement. The South Korean government is taking a more cautious approach to North Korea. True, the Sunshine Policy opened up new possibilities for inter-Korean relations, probed the potential of inter-Korean relations, and stabilized East-Asian security. However, it is clear that North Korea’s terrain has shifted considerably, and selecting between the two extremes of confrontationist and embracer is a mistake. Not only for South Korea or East Asia but also global peace, the South and the rest of the world should collaborate to find the most effective solution.

 Executive Summary

This paper discusses Hurricane Sandy, providing detailed information on this natural disaster. It will discuss the areas affected by Hurricane Sandy and the actual incident’s history. Further, the paper will discuss the technology employed, the impacts of communication and resolution of the incident, and what worked out the possible ways that could have improved the process. This will involve the rescue operation and the different technology that was employed in filtering the information to be communicated and fastening the process. The paper discusses all the incidences involved during Hurricane Sandy.


Hurricane Sandy was the most fatal, destructive, and strongest hurricane in the 2012 Atlantic season. Still, it is considered the second-largest Atlantic in history to date. This happened towards the end of October 2012 when Hurricane Sandy swept through the Caribbean-taking 75 lives before heading north. As it approached the East Coast, it recorded the highest waves ever recorded in the history of the Western Atlantic. This, therefore, caused a scary storm that sent floods in the whole of the coastal New York and New Jersey.

Consequently, the Hurricane spread over a distance of 800 miles between the East Coast and the Great Lakes regions. This resulted in 650,000 homeless people and a further 8.5 million without power. The effects of the disaster also caused damage to property worth $70.2 billion.

Hurricane Sandy Incident and Effects.

The Hurricane Sandy incident took place on October 22, 2012. This incident developed from the tropical waves that matured into a tropical depression. The hydro-meteorological perspective states that a large and unusual spatial extent went high up to 1700km. This was followed in quick succession by a tropical cyclone that developed. After two days, this process developed into a Category 1 hurricane with winds going higher in strength above 74mph. Hurricane Sandy was first experienced in Jamaica as a Category 1 hurricane on October 24, 2012. Simultaneous destructions followed this through Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas. Five days later, the landfall was experienced over the U.S. near Atlantic City, New Jersey, with the wind force escalating to 90mph.

This incident further led to deaths. These were through drowning in the storms that grew stronger and the sweeping floods that, in addition, destroyed homes. According to the National Hurricane Center, Hurricane Sandy caused 147 deaths. In the U.S., the number of deaths added to 72 (Kunz et al., 2013). Haiti came second as the most affected, with 54 deaths. The landfalls were experienced in the early hours of the day. The incident came with a lot of hazards, and the events afterward were adverse, and impacted greatly on the society. While Sandy was building up, there were heavy precipitations with rainfall totals above 200mm. This was the result of the flooding that swept away people and homes.

In the U.S., the Hurricane Sandy incident mainly affected the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia. These states recorded heavy rainfalls between 100-and 200mm. During the Sandy incident, the wettest days never experienced in October were first encountered in Baltimore, US. However, the Caribbean, known as the hurricane-prone region, was severely hit, which contrasts with the U.S., where New Jersey experienced its third landfall since recording (Kunz et al., 2013). In Jamaica and Cuba, heavy floods and rock debris flow resulted in heavy precipitation. These floods, therefore, were a threat to neighboring housing.

Further, there was fluvial river flooding due to the high precipitation. The high water levels in the lower rives near the Atlantic were caused by the high tidal currents, storm surges, and the fluvial flooding due to the heavy rainfall. During Hurricane Sandy, maximum water levels were obtained after years.


Pre-Hurricane Sandy Preparations and Communication

Hurricane Sandy led to power outages in most of the States in the U.S. This, however, did not stop people from using social media, though there were limited cases. These effects needed adequate preparation ions. The use of social media and other traditional media to give warning information was hugely invested in. From the reports, it was observed that a lot of concerns were raised by people over Hurricane Sandy. Data reports show that between October 14, October 14, 2012, and November 12, 2012, there were 52Million tweets from 13 Million users (Peer, 2018). However, the effects of the Hurricane were so adverse that it rendered many people vulnerable. These were followed by disaster response teams taking the initiative to educate society and assist. This called for effective communications, and therefore social media proved useful.

Communication during Hurricane Sandy needed to address the systemic planning. During this crisis, information on whether forecast would be vital for equipping people on the urgency of the matter. This further is a way to disseminate the required information to the public, therefore, hasting the planning before the crisis (Schmeltz et al., 2013). Timely communication is not limited to the traditional such as radio and television but also involves the social media platforms that have attracted heavy traffic in the present age (Peer, 2018). Acknowledging the value of social media in a crisis influences human interactions, which can further the spreading of the most essential information on the crisis (Peer, 2018). From these, predictions could be drawn on the next phase of the crisis as people got themselves prepared (Schmeltz et al., 2013). Therefore, information on systemic planning was needed over the media to educate the society and inform them of safety measures during the crises.

Apart from systemic planning, the social media role proved powerful since it was used as a tool for crisis communication. However, the floods and strong winds caused commotion across the country and therefore barring people from the convenience of accessing these communications from social media. In addition to crisis information being given to the public, proper education on handling crises should also be done to equip people with the skills needed managing crises.

Another factor that needs to be considered in emergency planning is avoiding overreliance on one device. During Hurricane Sandy, it was reported that some universities sent messages on different platforms. These were 17% of the messages by phone, 37% by text, and 46% by email (Savitz, 2013). This is one way of increasing the chances of assessing the paths in handling the crisis by the Emergency Operations. Further, the intense storms could take down communication lines and therefore shut down communications for single device users (Savitz, 2013). During a crisis, communication is necessary during preparations, and every effort should be pout inn ensure that all networks are functioning to enable easy management of the crisis.

Conducting regular system and staff testing and the procedures taken during a crisis is also part of the preparations before crises. This enhances effectiveness and accuracy. Training staff on operating and managing critical communication systems from all forces improves performance. Therefore, these early preparations before a crisis would boost effectiveness in handling the crisis. In addition to testing the systems, skills should be employed in messaging people. This involves making the messages shorter and more informative.

Communications Strategy Used

The headquarters of the Emergency Operations Center is in Silver Spring, Maryland. However, on October 27 October 27, 2012, there was the activation of the National Response Coordination Center in Washington D.C. to prepare for Hurricane Sandy’s landfall (FEMA, 2012). The center became the central command responsible for executing principle emergency preparedness and managing events after the Hurricane Sandy disaster. The emergency strategy aims to ensure the country’s operation continues despite the setback. The EOC was responsible for the operational decision and strategic directions. It did not directly engage in controlling assets on the field but left the tactical decisions to lower-level commands. It collected, gathered, and analyzed data from the ground. The decision was made intended to protect and further injuries. FDA experts monitored, assessed, and responded to Hurricane Sandy’s impacts. The commissioners needed to observe applicable laws and disseminate the same information to the concerned individuals and agencies.

The EOC evaluated and anticipated the worst-case scenario. The EOC engaged representatives from the private and public sectors to offer relevant information. There were conference calls with various agencies inside the country and outside. It made sure that the staff in the field and in the office got timely meals, sleeping arrangements, and other essential logistic considerations. Each staff member needed to remain focused and have passion throughout the disaster management process (FEMA, 2013). They needed to get things done with the highest level of efficiency despite the difficulties.EOC worked closely with the state’s emergency operations and healthcare evacuation efforts to effectively coordinate services. For instance, New York City, in an estimate, indicates that the steps taken to respond to Hurricane Sandy engaged extensive efforts and HURRICANE SANDY 6 resources ever documented. The mayor and the national officials needed to communicate effectively to ensure smooth implementation of the evacuation plans at both levels of government.

Technology Employed

The use of a web emergency operations center was also part of the technology employed. After Hurricane Sandy made landfall, FEMA hired a Web-based Emergency Operations Center (WebEOC) to coordinate and support response operations at the NRCC (FEMA, 2013). The WebEOC was used by FEMA and its Federal partners for various tasks- including supporting resource allocation requests from the field, coordinating Energy Restoration Task Force activities, maintaining situational awareness, monitoring and tracking national hurricane plan tasks, and tracking assistance provided to Hurricane Sandy survivors (FEMA, 2013). The WebEOC was critical in delivering a unified Federal response to Hurricane Sandy. It facilitated a common operating picture on the status of all orders through a live resource tracking board that consolidated information on all resources shipped to support Hurricane Sandy response efforts (FEMA, 2013).

Impacts of communication on Resolving Hurricane Sandy

Hurricane Sandy led to the destruction of businesses and the disruption of activities for a long time. The National Business Emergency Center (NBEOC) stopped in to respond to the disaster. NBEOC, as a virtual clearinghouse for two-way information, was critical in sharing information with stakeholders from the private and public sectors. During the crisis, FEMA and the private sector worked together to protect the lives of citizens and during rebuilding in the community (FEMA, 2013). NBEOC’s goal is to engage the representatives from the private sector in the national response center.

Additionally, FEMA linked the Regional Response Coordination Center with the federal and state partners’ broader emergency management network operations. The best practice is timely information to the business community to make informed decisions. The partnership allows the posting of maps that can assist in benefiting survivors. The process used the four business partners from across the nation to help affected communities.

The participation of the NBEOC was voluntary and opened to willing private sector members. They included chambers of commerce, think tanks, universities, non-profit organizations, trade associations, and small and large enterprises (FEMA, 2013). FEMA Region VII continues to support building and maintaining good partnership with individuals and business organizations of all sizes and shapes. It will play an integral role in ensuring an improved disaster resiliency in America.



The response to Hurricane Sandy involved the coordination of large-scale mobilization of supplies. FEMA was responsible for organizing and coordinating national teams and volunteers’ efforts pre-disaster and after the storm’s landfall. The federal government, through FEMA, ensured that the necessary support was available for response and recovery operations. The state agenesis and departments had the instructions to expedite assistance with speed. FEMA implemented the disaster declaration in the affected states. Working with the National Business Emergency Center and other teams helped restore fuel and power supply. It also helped in accelerating rental support to eligible survivors. The Incident Command System helped better and more effective emergency teams, thus refining the mission assignment. Therefore, FEMA, Federal Partners, and volunteers succeeded in delivering the necessary support compared to other natural disasters in the past.


The effects of climate change on human health have been adverse and widely discussed in different papers. Based on the four articles, mental health and general physical health is at risk of climate change. Temperature changes have been a spearhead in climate change and popularly affect humans’ health. The research paper discusses the best possible mitigation measure to reduce the adverse effects of climate change. Therefore, the thesis for the paper is the effects of climate change on human health.

Padhy, SusantaKumar, et al. “Mental Health Effects of Climate Change.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, 2015, p. 3,, 10.4103/0019-5278.156997.

There is no doubt that all of humankind will feel the effects of climate change, both physically and mentally. Based on the article, various climate changes affect one’s mental health. These climate changes include too much temperature, which makes people aggressive, climate change disasters that lead to PTSD among the victims. The economic changes due to climate change led to mental health as well. Mitigation for climate change includes “Mitigation of greenhouse gases involves less reliance on fossil fuels, developing and using alternate efficient power sources, reducing encroachment and lowering social capitals.”

Rocque, Rhea J., et al. “Health Effects of Climate Change: An Overview of Systematic     Reviews.” BMJ Open, vol. 11, no. 6, 1 June 2021, p. e046333,,             10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046333.

The two climate change effects on health discovered by the research were metrological and extreme weather events. The weather events like floods, droughts, and wildfires have adversely impacted human health. The authors’ impacts include undernutrition, heat-related mobility and mortality, respiratory disorder, and infectious diseases. Cochrane method was used for the research and resulted in metrological impacts, which were more studied and had more impact. The study’s strengths like having diverse findings and limitations like limited resources. It was concluded that the effects of climate on health are yet to rise in the coming years.

Tibbetts, John. “Driven to Extremes Health Effects of Climate Change.” Environmental   Health             Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 4, Apr. 2007, pp. A196–A203, doi:10.1289/ehp.115-     a196.

The research paper addresses specific health impacts caused by climate change. Prolonged drought followed by heavy downpours causes waterborne diseases and rodent-based diseases. The temperature rise also leads to high multiplication of pests like mosquitoes and other disease-causing bacteria and viruses. The paper narrows its research on climate change effect to be increased allergens exposure. Two trends hot and dry and hot and wet have a different effect on the climates and, in return, on human health. The article recommends renewable energy as the mitigation measure practiced by the US and global supply.

Hajat, Shakoor, et al. “Climate Change Effects on Human Health: Projections of Temperature-     Related Mortality for the UK during the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s.” Journal of          Epidemiology and Community Health (1979), vol. 68, no. 7, BMJ Publishing Group,           2014, pp. 641–48,

Temperature ambient change has a major impact on climate change in the UK region. The research implemented a time-series retrogressive analysis to characterize the current temperate mortality relationship by age and religion. Cold has caused most of the death recorded in the UK. Due to global warming, death-related cases will rise. Risk assessment was conducted based on a projection of population data and climate change projection. Future anticipation suggests that heat-related deaths will rise in the absence of population adaptation in the UK. The strength of the research is the variance in future temperature. The research recommends hot weather protection in the coming century for public health.


In a nutshell, it is estimated that as a result of climate change, more people may suffer from respiratory and cardiovascular ailments, severe weather-related accidents, illnesses spread by contaminated water and food, and mental health issues. Mitigations have been recommended, such as population adaptation, an adaptation of renewable energy, and greenhouse adaptation. By implementing the recommended mitigation, human health will be preserved and prolonged.

Writing a 12,000-word dissertation for school or your job can be tricky, but there are some guidelines to make it easier for new students. This post will give you a complete breakdown of how an in-depth dissertation will be structured.

Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

When asked, “What is Dissertation Structure?” Every dissertation has its own unique structure. Word count and the nature of the topic you’re writing about also play a role. In this article, I will explain in great detail how to organize a 12k-word dissertation.

You’ll have to devote 10% of your dissertation (or 1,200 words out of a total of 12,000) to the introduction, where you’ll lay out the context for your research, introduce your research questions, explain why your dissertation exists, and outline how you plan to go about achieving those goals.

Methodology/Literature Review The literature review is a required component of a dissertation and accounts for 30% of the total dissertation length (or 3,600 words for a dissertation of 12,000 words), during which time you will need to address the gap in the literature, take a methodological approach to the topic, and propose possible solutions to the unanswered questions.

Methodology The research methodology chapter of a dissertation should be 15%, or 1800 words, of the total length of a 12,000-word dissertation. In this section, you should outline the entire dissertation, go into great detail about how you plan to analyze the data, and give a thorough overview of how you plan to evaluate the various research methods you employ.

Insights/ Outcomes A dissertation’s findings or results chapter accounts for only 5 percent of the entire document. The findings or results section of a dissertation typically consists of 600 words out of a total of 12,000. A student must provide an in-depth analysis of dissertation findings in just 600 words.

Critical Thinking/Discussions: The analysis or discussion section of a dissertation accounts for 30 percent of the total, or 3,600 words in a 12-chapter, 6,000-word dissertation, and must provide a comprehensive overview of the results and their relevance to the dissertation’s main theme.

Results and Suggestions: Thirty percent of a dissertation is made up of the conclusion chapter. The concluding chapter of a dissertation that is 12,000 words long has 1,000 words. You have 3 hours to summarize your dissertation and make sure your reader understands your main argument in just 3600 words.

Dissertation Word Count Per Section

The dissertation word count is a critical factor for your success! This is because it will determine the quality of your research paper, as well as its length. The average dissertation word count should be between 10,000-15,000 words. However, this depends on the subject matter of your dissertation and its topic.

The dissertation is divided into chapters and each chapter is divided into sections. The dissertation must have a minimum of five chapters, with each chapter containing four to six sections. A section is defined as a separate part of your paper that discusses a particular topic or subtopic. The word count for each section varies from 500 to 1000 words in length.

It is necessary to maintain consistency in word count per section throughout the entire document for two reasons:

  1. It prevents you from going overboard with your writing, which can result in unnecessary repetition of words and phrases; and
  2. It ensures that you are not under-utilizing any part of your paper, thus failing to achieve your purpose and goals as an author.

How Many Words in a Dissertation?

The typical length of a dissertation varies from institution to institution and from discipline to discipline. It can be anywhere between 40-150 pages (5-12,000 words) or more. However, you should always avoid writing too much or too little as both would have adverse effects on your grade. The ideal word count will depend upon the topic of discussion and your personal writing style.

The dissertation may have to be shorter or longer than 100 pages. The main purpose of dissertation writing is to show how much you have learned during your studies and what new knowledge you have gained through conducting research on a particular topic. There are several factors that affect your word count:

The type of paper you are writing (e.g., literature review, literature review with theoretical framework, literature review with theoretical framework plus hypothesis statement). For example, if you are going to write an article review paper, then your word count will be less than if you were going to write an empirical study with data collection methodologies such as surveys or interviews).

How to Structure a Dissertation

Any dissertation should have at least four or five chapters, though the exact number will vary from field to field (including an introduction and conclusion chapter). Whether you’re writing a dissertation for the sciences or the humanities, the most common format consists of:

  1. Your topic introduced
  2. An analysis of the existing literature that covers all the bases
  3. Give us an outline of how you came to these conclusions.
  4. In-depth analysis of the findings and their relevance to the field
  5. A summary of the results that demonstrate the value of your study is required.

The Title Page

Include your name, department, institution, degree program, and submission date on the first page of your dissertation. Your supervisor’s name, your student ID number, and the school’s mascot may also be included. The title page of a dissertation must adhere to specific formatting guidelines for many programs. When having your dissertation printed and bound, the title page doubles as the cover.


In the discretionary acknowledgments section of your dissertation, you can express your gratitude to anyone who played a role in its creation. People who helped you along the way could be your supervisors, people who took part in your research, or even just friends and family.


A dissertation abstract is a brief synopsis of your work (typically between 150 and 300 words). It’s best to save it for last after you’ve finished the rest of the dissertation. For the summary, remember to:

  • Provide an overview of your study and its primary objectives.
  • Detail the procedures you followed.
  • The key findings should be summarized.
  • Explain your thinking.

Although brief, the abstract is often the first (and only) part of your dissertation that readers encounter. Consequently, it must be thoroughly and accurately written. Check out our abstract writing guide if you’re having trouble crafting a compelling one.

Getting Started: Table of Contents

You should include a table of contents with a complete list of all of the chapters and subsections, as well as the page numbers where they can be found. If you want your reader to get the most out of your dissertation, make sure to include a contents page.

The table of contents should include the appendices as well as the main body of your dissertation. Word makes it easy to automatically create a table of contents.

Tables and Figures List

The use of numerous tables and figures necessitates an iterated list at the end of the dissertation. In Word, the Insert Caption function can be used to quickly and easily generate such a list.

Abbreviations List

You can help your reader find what each abbreviation stands for by including an alphabetized list of them at the end of your dissertation.

If you have used many technical terms that your reader is unlikely to be familiar with, you may want to include a glossary. Compile an alphabetical list of the terms and provide a brief explanation for each.


In the introduction, you will lay the groundwork for your dissertation’s topic, purpose, and relevance, as well as give the reader a taste of what’s to come in the body. Your first paragraph should:

  • Set the stage for your investigation by providing the historical context you’ll need to fully understand your topic.
  • Limit the study’s scope and zero in on its specific goals.
  • Give an overview of the current research on the subject, tying your findings into the larger discussion or problem at hand.
  • Specify what you hope to achieve and what questions you hope to answer, and explain how you plan to do so.

The structure of your dissertation, in brief. Your introduction should be well-organized, interesting, and pertinent to your study. Your research’s what, why, and how should all be clear when the reader reaches a conclusion.

Exposition of the Background Literature and Conceptual Structure

In order to get a firm grasp on the academic work that has already been done on your topic, you should conduct a literature review before beginning your own research. So, what does this imply?

  • Assembling a library of books and articles and picking out the best ones
  • Evaluate and analyze each source critically
  • Making a larger point by linking various elements together (e.g., commonalities, differences, contrasts, and contradictions).

The literature review chapter or section of your dissertation should do more than merely summarize previous studies; it should also provide a clear rationale for your own study. Some examples of things it could prove are that your research:

  • Fills a need in the existing literature
  • Adopts a novel set of theoretical or methodological premises
  • Identifies a problem and suggests a way to fix it
  • Contributes to a theoretical discussion
  • Improves upon prior understanding by incorporating new information

You can build your theoretical framework, in which you define and analyze the central theories, concepts, and models that underpin your research, on the results of your literature review. Research questions pertaining to the description of associations between concepts or variables can be found here.


The credibility of your research can be evaluated thanks to the information you provide in the methodology chapter or section. In most cases, you need to make sure to include:

  • The methodological stance and field of study (e.g. qualitative, quantitative, experimental, ethnographic)
  • When gathering information, you use (e.g. interviews, surveys, archives)
  • Descriptions of the study’s timing, location, and participants
  • Analysis techniques you use (e.g. statistical analysis, discourse analysis)
  • What you used for instruments and supplies (e.g. computer programs, lab equipment)
  • Explain any problems you encountered and the solutions you found while conducting the research.
  • A rationale or analysis of the procedures you followed

The purpose of the methodology section is twofold: to provide a clear account of the procedures you followed and to persuade the reader that these steps were necessary and appropriate for achieving your research goals.


The next step is to present the findings of your investigation. This section can be organized in a variety of ways, including subquestions, hypotheses, or topics. Make sure that the findings you share are directly related to your aims and hypotheses. The results and discussion sections may be combined in some fields, but in others, they remain strictly separate.

In qualitative research, such as in-depth interviews, the presentation of data is often intertwined with discussion and analysis; in quantitative and experimental research, the results should be presented separately before you discuss their meaning. Don’t guess about the best way to organize your research; instead, talk to your advisor and read through some sample dissertations.

Tables, graphs, and charts are all great tools to use in the results section. Don’t include tables or figures that merely restate what you’ve already written; instead, give the reader something new to learn or provide a helpful visual representation of the results.  You can add an appendix with all of your raw data (like interview transcripts) if you like.


The discussion is where you dive into the significance and application of your findings to your research questions. In this section, you will be expected to thoroughly analyse the findings, explaining how they relate to your hypotheses and if/how they contradict your earlier work. Give reasons for any unexpected findings. It’s important to talk about the potential limitations of your study and other possible interpretations of the data.  In order to demonstrate how your findings contribute to the body of knowledge, you should cite relevant scholarly articles in the discussion. Add suggestions for additional study or potential next steps.


The dissertation’s conclusion should provide a clear and succinct response to the study’s central research question. The concluding chapter of your dissertation should include an analysis of your methods and results. Recommendations for future study or practice are also frequently included in the summary. Explain the significance of your study and how your findings add to the existing body of knowledge in this area. What new information have you uncovered?

A List of References

An exhaustive reference list containing information about every source you used is required (sometimes also called works cited list or bibliography). When citing sources, be sure to use the same format every time. The reference list in your paper must adhere to the strict guidelines of the chosen style.

Harvard and Vancouver referencing are the predominant styles used in UK universities. Referencing styles are often mandated by departments; for instance, APA is commonly used by psychology students, MHRA is common among humanities majors, and OSCOLA is required of law students. You should verify the prerequisites and consult your manager if you have any questions.


Only relevant information that helps answer your research question should be included in the dissertation itself. Interview transcripts, survey questions, and tables with complete figures that do not belong in the main body of your dissertation should be included as appendices.

Bottom Line

Due to its large size, the 12000-word dissertation paper is a daunting and strenuous task. However, with proper research, writing and outlining of the content, as well as using valid and useful evidence, it can be a rewarding experience for all parties involved.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, such as the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. People with cystic fibrosis produce abnormally thick and sticky mucus that clogs the lungs leading to persistent lung infections and breathing difficulties. The mucus prevents the release of digestive enzymes in the pancreas, impairing its ability to digest food. The primary symptoms of cystic fibrosis include high levels of salt in sweat, persistent cough with phlegm, wheezing, frequent lung infections, poor growth, weight loss, and infertility in men. Cystic fibrosis is life-threatening. It has no cure, but treatments can help its victims live long.

Cystic fibrosis diagnosis is based on specific symptoms such as high salt levels in sweat, a family history of CF, and results from various medical tests. Direct testing for CF can be done through a sweat test, genetic testing, or a nasal potential difference test. The most common test used to diagnose cystic fibrosis is the sweat test which measures the amount of salt in a person’s sweat. People with CF usually have higher than normal salt levels in their sweat. Genetic testing looks for mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. A mutation in the CFTR gene leads to the production of an abnormal protein that cannot function properly, disrupting the salt and water balance in the cells of the lungs and other organs. People with CF have thick and sticky mucus in the lungs and the digestive tract. The nasal potential difference test measures the electrical potential difference across the cell membranes in the nose. It can be used to diagnose CF in people who do not have the CFTR gene mutation (De Boeck, 2020).

Cystic fibrosis is mainly caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. This gene is responsible for producing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein, which controls the flow of salt and fluids in and out of body cells. A change in this gene leads to the production of an abnormal protein that cannot function properly, disrupting the salt and water balance in the cells. An imbalance in the salt and water levels in cells leads to the buildup of sticky mucus in the body. The mucus clogs the lungs leading to serious lung infections, and blocks the pancreas impairing its ability to digest food as it prevents the production of digestive enzymes (McKelvey, Weldon, McAuley, Mall, & Taggart, 2020). The mutation is believed to be caused by environmental and genetic factors.

Studies show that one person in 3,000 people in the general population of the United States is born with cystic fibrosis. Based on my ethnic background and family history, I’m not likely to be a carrier of cystic fibrosis. This is because the disorder is genetically transmitted; therefore, the absence of the condition in one’s family background indicates that one cannot be a carrier. If two parents who carry the CF gene have a child, the likelihood that the child will assume the CF gene is 50%. If I have a brother or a sister with CF and a white partner with no family history of CF and I have a child, there is a 25% chance that the child will be affected. A prenatal diagnosis of CF is possible. It can be made as early as ten weeks after conception. Research shows that parents who are given prenatal diagnosis can cope better with the consequences and make decisions.

Business premises and organizations have always preferred to use their own personnel and resources whereby they purchase or produce their needs such as of goods and services from the domestic environment so as to have ultimate control in the overall business activities as opposed to where business premises and companies have to focus on major value adding activities and therefore procure goods and services that are not main to their production, from the outside suppliers. The success of every company depends on its ability to react to future changes a little bit sooner than competitors and the first step to focus company’s operations to human factors and its core business activities and processes and refrain from monitoring operational details and additional operational activities is through outsourcing practices (Potkány 53). Firms and corporations face numerous challenges in choosing modes of outsourcing and the contractors to provide the services therefore there is urgent need to realize the best practices and services to apply as specific businesses in order to focus on their major activities in the event of reducing their operational costs and improving their contest in the business field (Liou and Chuang 1). Not all activities and processes in an organization can be outsourced from external contractors since there are number of factors such as quality, lead time deliveries and activity level of importance that have to be considered.

Most organizations and businesses aim at value, profit and wealth maximization which is often not the case where there are huge costs incurred such that it exceeds the revenue reaped from the business operations. The costs of operation have substantial effect on the final price of the product, which in turn affects the profit portfolio of business as proved by the predatory pricing doctrine where a firm raises the operational costs of a competing firm so as to gradually reduce their revenue, keeping them out of market (Salop 267). Organizations are therefore liable to work towards the reduction of operational costs by outsourcing of goods, activities and processes that are provided by the outside contractors at a relatively lower costs than it would be if it was made inhouse. Reduction of operational costs is one of the key reasons why organizations outsource resources such as IT services, as most of the external vendors have production cost advantages hence providing these services at lower prices (Han 315).

Businesses are mandated with the role of ensuring that the products they deliver conform with the specifications and they perform the purpose for which they are meant for. In some instances, businesses are incapable of providing the best value and quality hence they are forced to conduct professional outsourcing of competent and experienced personnel to provide the necessary knowledge and application that would ensure conformity. Business entities are faced with management problems within their facilities such as in procurement, financial, accounting, poor resources allocations and poor customer services, these entities therefore purchase these resources from external contractor to help provide the services at best quality that could not be provided by the contracting entity (Lok et al. 1). In a recent study to establish the new forms of organizing and professional identity, we find a conclusion that outsourcing of professional services brings about rise of elasticity delivery of service; as more focus is given to the output as the outsourced service gives more quality than would have been the case if provided inhouse (Veenswijk 18)

Having the right time management in a business enables entity to be focused on prioritization of their activities and ensure the delivery of the right products at the right time to the consumers. Businesses may not be able to keep up with the consumers lead time delivery expectations if they spend much time on the non-core business activities, in order to save on time, they resolve to procuring of these resources from the external suppliers who can provide these services within the provided time limit as the entity concentrate on their main activities. Businesses allocate much of its time on indispensable activities and processes to improve overall performance and least time is focused on other activities that have been mandated on outside contractors (Maku and Ivaro 8)

Before organizations decide to outsource services, they should conduct due diligence and consider all the necessary factors such as; separation of their core activities from other activities, comparison of the costs involved in outsourcing versus in inhouse production, comparison of the lead time delivery and the quality achieved.

In the recent past, businesses, organizations, and institutions have resorted to operating on a wide international scale, therefore affecting the general prices of goods and services globally as the financing sector is also influenced. Although local businesses have always relied on the traditional ways of competition, global markets have forced businesses to rethink and shift their competitive strategies to match and surpass the widely grown international market if they are to survive and stay in the contest. The challenge of International Competitive Strategy is critical for businesses operating at global levels. It is not only concerning more common issues such as quality, technology, and innovation but also regarding the symbolism associated with uniqueness and the symbolism of global and local versus local products. Dealing with international products in international markets requires quite different ways and thinking to be innovative in the ways that can overcome the negative stereotypes and images at home and in foreign markets associated with the products from undeveloped countries (Ger 68). Organizations operating in the international marketplace must design the master plans that would enable them to stay in the global competitive markets, such as through cost leadership, focus strategy, joint venture strategic alliance, patenting, and customization of products and services.

Businesses and organizations have developed their original form of operation by producing and delivering more goods to the market and focusing on sales, advertisement, and marketing activities. This method of operation is an anomaly to the recent globalization that has given rise to global markets where competition is based on forecasting international customer needs, and the products are tailored to individual customer demand to achieve satisfaction. Customization is one of the crucial factors for manufacturers to stay in a competitive position in today’s turbulent environment since the mainstream of mass customization is focused on flexibility and quick responsiveness through a variety of customized goods with low cost and high quality (Hou 6). Linking technologies like emails and the Internet allows firms to rapidly and more effectively communicate with consumers in a co-design process to learn what is wanted in the product and service features to deliver as specified by customers (Helms 1).

Operation of businesses as independent entities and not in operational contract with other external organizations has been the norm in the recent past. In-house sourcing is inconsistent with the current regionalized markets where it is necessary to have strategic alliances and joint ventures to pool resources together to effectively reach the customers, persuade, sell to them and maintain a long-term relationship with them. Corporations must enter into strategic alliance arrangements with comprehensive plans outlining detailed expectations, requirements, and benefits. Strategic alliance offers the business arrangements competitive benefits of entering the market, bypassing government restrictions, bringing together funds, and quickly learning from the leading firms in a given field (Elmuti 205). Businesses and corporations can achieve a global market competitive advantage by application of various ways of developing inter-organizational relations, such as: through joint ventures. Equity investments, franchising, licensing, and market relations (Todeva 1-3).

The trend of technology in the business world has pushed the market towards global commonality such that only businesses that are aggressive enough to adjust are the only ones that can survive this fast-growing sector. Corporations, therefore, apply all the reasonable and applicable master plans that would enable them to stand by in competitions, such as through business relations, and to be flexible to the specific individual customer demands.

Explore the issue of euthanasia with reference to arguments in favor of and against this practice as these relate to the different thinking of various theorists.

There are a number of compelling arguments for and against euthanasia. Those may share a number of these arguments with divergent beliefs. For instance, an atheist may recognize the dangers of allowing euthanasia (the slippery slope argument). Still, they may argue that the right of an individual to direct their own life outweighs other good arguments.

The argument is typical that some individuals are so ill that they no longer feel they can live with the pain or no longer wish to live. In my opinion, if you are gravely ill and on your deathbed, you should be able to choose to end your suffering (Pesut et al. 153). However, some believe it is unethical to have someone “kill” you because you no longer wish to live.

Many religious believers likely have great sympathy for arguments that a person should not be forced to live in agony. Still, for them, the notion that life is sacred may outweigh other ideas, no matter how compelling they may be.

Contrary to advocates of assisted suicide today and proponents of euthanasia, who put a premium on individual autonomy, Plato viewed a person’s desire to live or die as a significant factor in determining their fate and irrelevant to deciding whether suicide might be acceptable. An objective assessment of the moral worthiness of a person, not the individual’s decision regarding the value of continued life, was decisive. In contrast to Plato, the Stoics of later Hellenistic and Roman times espoused a non-religious philosophy. Roman eras emphasized more on the welfare of the individual. They believed that even though life, in general, was even though life should be lived to its fullest, there may be instances where suicide is acceptable

Pro-euthanasia arguments

The following are some arguments in favor of euthanasia:

  • Humans should have the right to choose when and how they pass away (self-determination).
  • Euthanasia allows a person to die with dignity and in control of their situation.

The state should not interfere with an individual’s right to die because death is a private matter.

When there is no cure for a person’s illness, it is costly to keep them alive (Verhofstadt et al. 160). The release of valuable resources through euthanasia would allow for treating individuals who could live.

  • Family and friends would be spared the anguish of witnessing a loved one endure a drawn-out death.
  • Society allows animals to be euthanized as a compassionate act when they are suffering; the same option should be available for humans.

Opposition to euthanasia arguments

Some arguments against euthanasia that are not religious include:

  • Euthanasia would diminish society’s regard for the value and significance of human life.
  • Appropriate palliative care is available, which reduces or eliminates the need for individuals to be in pain
  • terminally ill patients would receive inferior care
  • It would put too much power in the hands of doctors and erode the trust between patient and doctor.
  • Some individuals may feel pressured by family, friends, or physicians to request euthanasia, even if it is not what they truly desire.
  • it would undermine the resolve of physicians and nurses to save lives
  • it would discourage the pursuit of new cures and treatments for terminally ill patients
  • a few individuals recover inexplicably
  • Some people may change their minds about euthanasia and be unable to communicate this to anyone
  • Voluntary euthanasia could be the first step on a slippery slope leading to involuntary euthanasia, in which undesirable or problematic individuals are killed.


This article substantiates the need for environmental awareness and education on ecological responsibility. It builds its argument on the paradigm presented in “Fairly Traceable” by Mary Kathryn Nagle. It follows the love tale of two Native Americans with different identities. The two young adults face the problem of integrating individual career goals with environmental advocacy. The difficult predicament is the result of one party’s ecological awareness and the other’s reluctance to value and safeguard the environment while witnessing the disastrous repercussions of climate change. Nagel utilizes their narrative to expose the culpability of huge oil firms, companies that pollute the environment, and climate change deniers. The playwright emphasizes the need for ecological awareness, motivating inquiry into the level of environmental awareness among Native American tribes. Various kinds of research provide the parameters necessary to evaluate the environmental consciousness of the populace. A study of the same indicates poor levels of ecological awareness. Diverse characters’ attitudes and acts demonstrate a lack of ecological education, which encourages environmental irresponsibility. The analysis demonstrates the need for ecological education in the pursuit of ecological consciousness among the characters in Nagel’s play. The desired outcome is to prevent potential environmental disasters through ecological thinking, environmental campaigning, and enhanced regulatory frameworks.

Keywords: ecological awareness, climatic change, ecological education, sustainable development, ecological thought, environmental responsibility


“Fairly Traceable” by Mary Kathryn Nagle elucidates the impending environmental catastrophe if no action is taken. The play is set in the future and tries to educate audiences about the potential consequences of failing to understand the ecology and to put a stop to all of the bad practices that irresponsible people engage in to enrich themselves while destroying the ecosystem (Nagle). Numerous cases dismissed by conservative courts on the basis of Justice Antonin Scalia’s ‘fairly traceable’ doctrine inspired the play. The idea has been abused on multiple occasions to excuse ecological irresponsibility and absolve liable individuals, further endangering the ecosystem. Such plays and other advocacy and informative techniques are required in today’s negligent society. Humans inhabit a world that values environmental irresponsibility. By driving fossil fuel-powered vehicles, using tractors in agriculture, consuming beef, and installing air conditioners, corporations and individuals normalize irresponsibility.

The 1992 Supreme Court decision written by Justice Antonin Scalia illustrates the irresponsible failure to safeguard the environment based on the assumption that all humans participate in harming the ecosystem. The argument at least misleads the world into believing that oil and gas companies and their equivalents are not responsible for environmental devastation. The concept exemplifies the erroneous notion that climate change is a hoax (Nagle). It protects corporations functioning in the corporate sector from the appropriate penal measures. It allows them to continue exposing the globe and oceans to alarming temperature increases. Nagle has no qualms about exposing this phony belief system. The acclaimed dramatist discusses the importance to safeguard land, water, and the atmosphere for future generations. She is acutely aware of the urgent need to maintain human welfare, beginning with the constitutional principles and the institutions intended to uphold them. She handles the delicate matter from an unorthodox position that shatters common views and introduces a worthy new viewpoint.

In the current era of massive environmental destruction and instantaneous effects, Nagle’s perspective is extremely pertinent. In contrast to the majority of people, the screenwriter regards the terrible outcomes as a lesson worth imparting to the world. She believes that despite big authority’s reluctance, regular citizens may force the government to take responsibility for the environment through legal means (Nagle). Her dramatic twist enables her to skip all other recognizable tragedies and rush directly to the famed environmental calamities that could have been avoided if the appropriate efforts had been done in a timely manner. The drama depicts the catastrophic circumstance in which a whole Tulane Law School campus had to be relocated in the future. The predicaments of the students are due to the environmental demise of New Orleans and several other coastal places (Nagle). It illustrates the prospect of such calamitous outcomes if people do not adjust their approach to environmental pollutants instead of justifying them with similarly uninformed doctrines. Importantly, the play emphasizes the necessity for environmental consciousness, which is intended in part to eradicate such misguided beliefs (Saeidi et al. 45). A central theme of the play is the idea of creating a society in which individuals take responsibility for their actions rather than imitating or outperforming others.

The message conveyed by Nagle’s Fairy Traceable is significantly more pertinent to the current day than what people superficially communicate on a daily basis. Just twenty years ago, Hurricane Katrina devastated property and killed more than 1800 people (Nagle). South Korea and Pakistan are experiencing a similar situation in 2022. Continually, floods and typhoons destroy property, kill people, and displace others. All of the damage is a result of the failure to safeguard the environment and the careless propensity to shelter those who continually deface it. From Nagle’s perspective, the never-ending cycle of environmental catastrophes stems from the repeated errors humans make in addressing environmental challenges, and he urges global education on the subject. Fortunately, irresponsibility may be avoided if the proper actions are taken to address the problem (Saeidi et al. 45). Nagle advises looking for alternatives to the destruction of Native American sites. Hers is spreading the message that the globe can still be preserved if individuals are aware of the proper responses to environmental challenges. In her perspective, ecological consciousness and the dedication to learn and absorb its precepts are important in the fight against climate change.

The play by Nagle emphasizes the necessity for a balance between professional aspirations and environmental advocacy. The drama also emphasizes the possibility of Native American identity and environmental activism. It illustrates a gap between contemporary society’s views of the identity of Native Americans and environmental advocacy (Nagle). It raises the question of whether people can successfully balance being who they were born to be, doing what is economically advantageous, and maintaining a healthy environment. This question extends beyond awareness of what is happening to the environment to encompass environmental responsibility. It demands research on how knowledgeable people are about the health of the environment, their desire to advocate for the ecological system, and their capacity to modify laws that are incompatible with the fight against continued climate change. This study uses a variety of research methods to determine these factors in support of efforts to preserve the ecological system. It is founded on Nagel’s notion that people can and should adopt new identities that give them the freedom to make the law serve the ecology’s current and future well-being, rather than merely chasing profits. Awareness of the requirements of the environment is of particular relevance to the study, as it is the cornerstone of educated and successful advocacy.

Literature Review

It is unjust, in Nagle’s view, that the law can be used to defend environmental change perpetrators, when they should be held accountable for what happens to the victims. She views this as a form of disenfranchisement and feels the law should be modified to safeguard the environment and those affected by environmental change. Moreover, she believes that it is essential for Indigenous people to discuss the environment from their perspective. The fact that they have been defending the ecological system for a long time gives them a lot more credible perspective than newcomers. However, their knowledge of the subject is much more significant, as being knowledgeable about the past, present, and future forms the basis of their perspective. For instance, they require information regarding corporate environmental polluters, climate change deniers, and the culpability of big for-profit corporations. Ecological consciousness refers to the human relationship with the environment as a state of mind (Cherdymova 167). It investigates the philosophical capacity of humans in relation to the natural world. The complex composition of psychological endowment includes knowledge and application of environmental laws, emotions, and ethics, as well as all other overlapping components.

As a whole entity, environmental consciousness can be approached from a variety of valid angles. Given that they are all the creations of a single human and culminate in the finding of the ecological conceptions people possess, they all share a common technique (Yazevich, Kalinina & Zhironkina 2). Consciousness is a wide-ranging phenomenon that enables introspection, comprehension of associated rules, ecological system production, and a variety of other activities. The functions aid in determining whether or not a person is environmentally concerned. They also elevate an individual to the desired level of environmental consciousness. The functions are also the basis of ecological favorability knowledge, which determines how well an individual performs in meeting the needs of the environment. They assist humans in achieving their task of harmoniously interacting with the natural world and enhancing the ecosystem (Bührle & Kimmerle 3). In this way, environmental consciousness can be measured by the performance of each individual in each function. In addition, environmental awareness can be gauged by observing how individuals prioritize ecological system-related issues. People that are sincerely engaged in interacting positively with the environment typically prioritize the patterns of growing natural ecosystems (Bührle & Kimmerle, 2). It entails possessing the proper ideals and doing everything possible to improve the natural environment. Overall, ecological consciousness consists of both human-centric and environment-centric elements that drive decisions intended to promote the welfare of the environment.

People whose ideals allow them to interact with nature and the natural world are seen as ecologically conscious. Feeling and experiencing oneness with the ecological system is indicative of concern for the environment (Bührle & Kimmerle, p. 4). However, environmental education plays a significant role in fostering these values and maintaining the link. People at all educational levels, including preschool, high school, and university institutions, as well as other levels, require environmental education (subhi 192). Such education is crucial for ecological consciousness because it enables the development of an environmental culture among individuals of varying ages. It implies that ecological consciousness can be measured by carefully evaluating educational institutions. For instance, it is possible to examine the ecological consciousness of Native Americans by evaluating their educational system. This type of evaluation, while inconclusive, can provide information on the degree to which the culture of Indigenous peoples embraces and serves the natural world. For instance, the evaluation can include the ecological assessment of a certain population by determining whether the learning tools they employ are sufficiently optimized to foster and sustain an environmental culture.

The system of education should enable students to recreate environmental information content and methodologies. One can evaluate the system by determining whether it generates environmentally cognizant pupils whose environmental knowledge and values are distinct from their spirituality and morals (Gudmanian et al. 4). Students are successfully imbued with ecological consciousness due to the system’s capacity to implant ecological thinking, inspire ecologically oriented emotions, and elicit the appropriate behaviors. The protégés of such a system are likely to be environmentally conscientious and responsible (Liobikien & ePokus, p. 2). Students’ capacity to interact effectively with the environment is replicated through the use of modern learning technology. A system of education that is ecologically oriented assists students in reviving and expanding their environmental awareness, and ultimately in acquiring the appropriate level of the same. In this sense, one might determine the potential eco-centricity of a student by examining whether the system is designed to replicate students’ ecological thinking skills (Ma 62). When the products of the education system adopt the proper environmental practices, ecological education becomes the foundation of ecological consciousness. In the case of Native people, their educational system must be geared toward instilling sustainable development-oriented beliefs, emotions, and behaviors.

Ecological education is intended to alter the social standing of students. A person’s education should transform him or her from an individual who is not responsible for the environment to one who has the discipline to apply the principles of sustainable development in practice. Only if the system permits pupils to have the appropriate personal and cultural perspective of the environment can it be deemed successful in fostering ecological consciousness among Native students (Cherdymova et al. 167). The behavior of students who studied in such a system is indicative of those who avoid disturbing the natural order. Instead, the individual strives to maintain equilibrium in every manner imaginable. People that are environmentally conscientious are aware that the environment is a product of nature and a means of growth. Learning and internalizing this implies that the environmentally conscious person recognizes the environment as a gift from nature and executes all acts with a mindset of sustainability. For instance, if Native Americans are ecologically conscious, they recognize that nature is the source of their ecological system. To this end, ecologically conscious individuals advocate for sustainable actions and avoid anything that could negatively impact the environment. Understanding one’s responsibility to the environment and carrying it out are components of self-realization in which a person recognizes the interconnectedness of all acts. Useful and replicable are education systems that encourage the development of this consciousness.

Education designed to promote ecological awareness should aid individuals in gaining a comprehensive understanding of nature. Nature has multiple philosophical meanings, all of which should be internalized because they are the foundations of ecological consciousness. One of the definitions of nature is that it combines everything (Abakare 103). The definition considers the natural scientific approach that enables an objective understanding of nature. It proposes seeing the earth as an independent phenomenon distinct from humans. The separation permits the planet to be viewed as something that evolves independently, and this should be considered in studies. The second definition adopts an ecological perspective (Abakare 108). In this perspective, the concept of sustainable development supports the belief that the earth should be regarded as an ecosystem that serves as a habitat for humans. The concept takes into account the co-evolution of humans and the earth, which have distinct modes of natural existence and rules of development. The third definition adopts an existential stance. According to this viewpoint, nature is pervasive, making it important to the evolution of all naturally occurring phenomena. In this regard, humanity and the earth are separate components of nature. Their evolution is unique, but they also influence one another, making each state dependent on the other. The fourth definition examines an ontological perspective (Abakare 113). It explains that humans should consider their existence from the standpoint of natural existence. The approach teaches that humanity should be aware of self-nature as part of the planet and take an arbitrary standpoint in relating to it. It involves assuming responsibility for the planet and its development when considering the same elements for oneself.

The four definitions enable humans to comprehend their relationship with the world as an infinite phenomenon. They help humans surpass their understanding of their relationship with the planet beyond the current confines. Transcending the limited view is considered living in reality (Boccio 113). Except for the first definition, all others pursue the lesson that humans develop as products of the environment; comprehending this is the start of ecological consciousness. They advocate the notion that humans should integrate their knowledge of the planet from the perspective of dealing with concepts as opposed to happenings. Considering the nature of existence from an ideological standpoint elevates the level of human thought. Implementing the concept of sustainable development at higher levels is simple and possibly fruitful. People must be taught that they are a part of nature and that they interact with the earth as a unit. In this way, people see the need to care for the planet by viewing it as a component of nature whose health reflects that of humans. Consideration of nature’s unity is the beginning of ecological thought and the basis of ecological consciousness. People can form an ecological culture if they have this foundation.

Another aspect of ecological awareness is advocating for environmental law reform. The focus of Nagel’s play is the responsibility of oil companies. The notion of “reasonably traceable” is used to exonerate companies despite the fact that their negligence is the cause of hurricanes and other environmental calamities (Nagle). In this instance, the applicable law is permeable and unreliable. A high level of environmental irresponsibility is demonstrated by shielding guilty parties from the legal duty they should have for climate change victims. The legislation should be more effective in prosecuting all parties responsible for environmental devastation. Environmental rule of law seeks to address all the fundamentals of establishing order in the environmental sector (Wu & Tang 2). The resolution of environmental challenges goes beyond moral education. It necessitates the deployment of numerous measures to ensure the law’s successful implementation. Environmental regulations can be enforced using moral ideals as legal standards (Gudmanian et al. 5). As rules, moral standards can limit the connection between humans and the natural world. They can help reduce the harmful activities that individuals and corporations engage in to benefit themselves, but which ultimately hurt the environment. The development of a normative system is one of the objectives of environmental legislation. People learn and internalize the limits they should not surpass when interacting with the environment from the system. Learning the constraints and implementing them is a component of developing ecological consciosness.


The quest for understanding the Native characters’ ecological consciousness level in Nagel’s play necessitates an appraisal of the same. The documentary ‘Fairly Traceable’ focuses on the lives of Native American youth. Erin, a Chitimacha, meets Randy, a Ponca, and they attempt to create a balance between their career ambitions and environmental campaigning (Nagel). However, disagreements begin to emerge between the two young lovers. Nonetheless, different conceptions of environmental advocacy are crucial. Erin has a negative track record with climate change. She holds oil firms accountable for spewing poisonous gases into the atmosphere and leading to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which had devastating effects on her community. Erin’s resentment pushes her to sue the oil firms, one of which becomes the employer of her romantic partner. Erin and Randy’s conflict stems in part from their divergent environmental conscience. Their divergent historical experiences also add to the repercussions.

The play by Nagel demonstrates a lack of ecological awareness. Several characters in the play have a blatant disregard for the health of the world. For instance, Randy’s covert job search at an energy business indicates that he rejects the reality of climate change (Nagel). Since he watched the devastation caused by the two hurricanes, his actions are uninformed. However, he does not appear to blame the oil giants for their destructive deeds. Randy’s conduct renders him equally culpable. His refusal to embrace Erin’s environmental work portrays him as a climate change skeptic. His backing for a polluting corporation is sufficient cause to connect him with society’s culpable elements (Gudmanian et al. 5). It reveals much about his educational background. Unlike Erin, Randy’s actions demonstrate that his school system was not meant to create a sense of environmental responsibility. Additionally, as a Native, Randy should have been in the vanguard of efforts to protect the ecological system. Randy’s background indicates that he has some environmental consciousness. The education system did not, however, accentuate and replicate these ideals in him.

Randy’s behavior is indicative of a lack of psychological endowment, emotions, and ethics typical of ecologically conscious individuals (Tsabolova et al. 2027). In contrast to Erin, the young man is environmentally reckless, since he joins an oil firm that is partially responsible for the ecological calamities afflicting the land. If anything, he lacks the cognitive abilities required for ecological thinking, as he is aware of the disastrous effects of climate change, yet his action is unaffected by this knowledge. Due to a lack of ecological education, he speculates that his community may have a greater number of individuals with a similar lack of environmental awareness. Ecologically concerned individuals are more eager to fight for the environment’s welfare, a trait that Randy lacks (Nagel). Worse still, the young man’s unwillingness to sacrifice for the good of the world reveals that he is misinformed and unwilling to contribute to the development of a more favorable regulatory environment. The message of Nagel to the world is that it is possible to make productive use of one’s energies by campaigning for the modification of adverse laws. Taking on such responsibility may necessitate giving up certain things, such as career aspirations at an irresponsible oil company.

Arguably, the nature of capitalism will put one’s moral compass to the test. Fast-paced modern lifestyles are such that the pressure to keep up with the contemporary life requirements demands getting integrated into the reckless economic system. Not everyone will be willing to make hard choices or sacrifices for the sake of mother nature. However, people’s reluctance to address the causes of ecological disasters reveals a lack of ecological awareness of how dire environmental degradation truly is, particularly in highly industrialized societies. One could argue that modern society prefers to turn a blind eye until the issue becomes so dire that a response is required. In the play, the submerged city of New Orleans and the permanent submersion of Martha’s Vineyard represent the results of human and corporate actions (Nagel). In hindsight, this indicates that those who lived in the years preceding the disastrous outcomes did not recognize and alter the contributing factors. The failure of this generation to value the environment and pursue sustainable development demonstrates an inability to understand and act environmentally. The catastrophe was caused by a lack of proactiveness in this particular civilization, and nothing could be done to alleviate it in the event of the crisis. Nagel desires to abolish a worrying social condition well in advance of the impending consequences within the following two decades. She encourages the audience to evaluate their ecological awareness and potential to prevent looming disasters; in other words, to be proactive about the state of the environment in which they live.


The future’s conceivable states are used in Nagel’s play to emphasize the incorrect opinions the current generation has regarding the environment. The intelligent drama emphasizes the necessity for environmental awareness. The dramatist is eager to substantiate this necessity by illustrating the calamities and disparities that may occur in the future if people do not seek ecological consciousness and do everything it requires now. Nagel outlines what the current generation must do to preserve future generations. She begins by identifying the issue and then describes the difficulties of resolving it in an already troubled future. In addition, the screenplay examines the necessity for environmental awareness and identifies the symptoms of groups of people who lack ecological awareness. All of the material in the enjoyable play proposes diagnosing the community in order to determine its level of ecological awareness. It also involves modifying systems to align with intended outcomes and thereafter evaluating people’s behavior for signs of change.

The author demonstrates potential means of sabotaging an oncoming tragedy by way of illustration. She has at least assumed the duty of highlighting a subject that is frequently overlooked. She has also advised the globe against pursuing a path that will likely lead to catastrophes. The dramatist employs the medium of entertainment to highlight a flaw in the nation’s legal system. According to her, the law permits environmental irresponsibility to flourish under the principle of fair traceability. Allowing the vice demonstrates a lack of ecological awareness. She artistically presents an unfavorable portrait of ecologically unaware individuals, so presenting an opportunity to investigate the issue and identify potential remedial ways.

People, according to Nagel, should seek a strategy for developing an ecological culture. The culture empowers people to be ecologically responsible, teaches them to think with the world in mind, and permits them to employ legal tools to achieve environmental justice (Jiang, Wang, & Zeng 390). According to research, an ecological culture can be fostered in students if their education is appropriately geared towards that end. The primary recommendation is that societies use the educational system to foster a culture that prioritizes environmental health. Traditional and contemporary institutions should enhance learners’ environmental advocacy and impart additional skills to promote their development into responsible individuals. The activities of learners should demonstrate a change in their thoughts and feelings upon completion of the educational system. Despite these developments, the true definition of ecological consciousness is doing everything possible to conserve the environment and advocate for its preservation (Ma 60). Ecological awareness can only be demonstrated by actions. Some of the characters in Nagel’s “Fairy Traceable” are disqualified by this reality, as their actions lack these characteristics. Randy’s actions were detrimental to the environment, making him and those who resemble him, environmental offenders.


There are numerous effective proposals for enhancing ecological consciousness and environmental responsibility. Among them is the creation of an education system that effectively alters the social position of students. An in-depth examination of the proposed education system suggests that learning should be designed to alter the cognitive and emotional capacity of individuals. Education systems should be designed to assist students in altering their thought processes, emotions, and values (Schuman et al. 2). A successful system accomplishes this by encouraging students to prioritize the environment. The system should facilitate a sense of unity between students and the ecological system. It should deepen the learners’ interaction with the environment so that they can meet its requirements in the most effective manner. Doing so can guarantee a social status transition from an irresponsible identification to that of an individual who employs the ideas of sustainable development.

Changes can also be made to the educational system to make humans the focal point of the planet (Whitburn, Linklater, & Abrahamse 188). The majority of educational systems instruct that humans are the subjects and nature is the object. The subject-object interaction produces an unfavorable perspective in which the two are perceived as adversaries. The relationship promotes the evolution of a mindset in which humans develop an anthropocentric ecological consciousness and precipitate environmental catastrophes. However, reversing the relationship can convince humans of the need to consider the needs of the environment rather than only their own (Gudmanian et al. 7). It inculcates a sense of responsibility in a bid to attain a balanced ecological system. Ecological awareness should help humans recognize the necessity of caring for nature.

Legislating moral values is another viable strategy. Humans fail to maintain the environment in ‘Fairly Traceable’ because moral ideals are not incorporated into the law. Such laws should stem from a moral standpoint rather than enabling unchecked exploitation of natural resources. If the generation preceding the detrimental events considers adopting moral standards to create environmental regulations, the outcome could be different (Wu & Tang 2). There is a strong correlation between moral ideals and ethical behavior in individuals and corporations. Advocating for moral laws can mitigate the deleterious impacts of legal systems and doctrines that absolve environmental polluters of responsibility. In the highlighted instance, environmental campaigning can be more effective if the courts recognize the fair attribution of environmental damage to oil firms.