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It is recommended that you create a meaningful resignation letter when transitioning from employment to retirement to help keep the company connections and coworker relationships you built throughout your career.

By filing a retirement letter of resignation, you allow your firm to plan for your departure adequately. In this article, we will cover what a resignation letter is and why you should write one for retirement, as well as share letter examples.

What Exactly is a Resignation Letter?

A resignation letter informs your employer that you intend to depart your position. A retirement resignation letter allows your company to plan for your absence and begin the hiring process for your replacement.

Most resignation letters require two weeks’ notice, but this can differ for retirement letters. If you are in upper-level management, it may take months for your employer to find a suitable replacement. 

Consider alerting your management as soon as you begin making retirement preparations so that they have enough time to hire and educate a new or existing employee. Like other professional correspondences, resignation letters should include the following components:

Heading

The date, the recipient’s name, the firm’s name, and the address should all be at the top of a written letter.

A Salutation

Includes a quick greeting that addresses the recipient at the start of a letter. If you have a personal relationship with the reader, use their first name, such as “Dear Kenesha.” It is best to mention their title and last name in a more professional letter, such as “Dear Mr. Guerrero.”

Body

The body might have one to five paragraphs. The first paragraph should begin with a declaration about your intention to retire, mentioning a date.

Personal information, such as skills learned or retirement goals, can be included in the following paragraphs. Consider writing about your time at the company and thanking your employer for the opportunity to work for the corporation in a more sincere letter. You might also offer to help with the changeover.

Signature

Finish the letter with a closure like “Sincerely” or “Gratefully,” then sign and date.

How to Write a Retirement Letter

We’ve prepared seven crucial stages to aid you through the writing process to guarantee you produce a successful retirement letter for your employer:

1. Make sure your retirement letter is appropriately formatted

Proper formatting on your retirement letter guarantees that your employer (and HR) comprehend entirely what you’re stating. 

Here are some pointers to help you format your retirement letter:

To avoid the appearance of being too vacant or congested, use a readable, professional typeface with a font size of 10-12. Times New Roman, Arial, and Verdana are typically the best typefaces for a letter.

List your current contact information (e.g., first and last name, mailing address, email address, and phone number) at the top center or top left of your letter if they need to reach you concerning work-related concerns.

After adding your contact information, left-align today’s date on a separate line to keep track of when you submitted your retirement letter.

To demonstrate that you’re following proper letter-writing methods, including your employer’s contact information beneath the current date (e.g., your employer’s first and last name, firm name and address, phone number, and email).

Respectfully greet your employer by beginning your letter with “Dear [Mr./Ms./Mx] [Last Name],” so it’s clear who you’re addressing. You can address your team, department, or company if necessary.

2. Inform your employer when and why you intend to retire

After greeting your employer, express your desire to retire and specify the date you want to leave the organization.

Giving your employer notice that you are retiring indicates that you value their time and allows them to notify HR so that the company may begin the leave process as soon as possible.

Consider the following easy retirement letter opening:

Madame Das, I’m writing to inform you that I will leave Genesis Consulting on February 15, 2023.

Discuss your plans and what you require from the organization.

Making your objectives clear with your retirement letter is critical to avoid miscommunication.

So, immediately contact your employer if you require assistance with action items such as

  • obtaining pension benefits
  • collecting your pension using unused sick days or vacation time, or obtaining your final paycheck,
  • Some firms will allow you to stay on and work part-time or casually. If you’re interested in continuing to work part-time or as a freelance consultant or mentor, you can mention that in your retirement letter.

And, if you choose, you can disclose your plans to your boss briefly — significantly if you’re departing on good terms and have close relationships with your coworkers.

You could, for example, indicate in your letter that you want to:

  • Travel to a different country for vacation
  • Spend time with your family and friends
  • Start a new interest in a new city
  • take good care of yourself.

Consider the following sample phrase about our retiree’s plans:

I intend to continue in San Jose after retirement and improve my lifestyle by incorporating yoga, meditation, and swimming into my daily regimen.

3. Volunteer to help with the change

Employers would appreciate it if you expressed your willingness to assist with the transfer. So, whether you’re passing over documents, turning over equipment, or training a new employee to take over your function, include a particular sentence about how you can help them or that you’re pleased to stay in touch.

Here’s an example of a statement regarding how you can help your company:

It will be my pleasure to welcome the next Director of Operations before my departure, so please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. I’m going to miss working here, and I’d love to keep in touch with you and the rest of our team.

4. Thank your boss for showing your gratitude

Retiring from a company where you’ve invested time and work can be bittersweet. Even if you’re eager to leave, you should always thank your employer for the opportunity and maintain a cheerful tone.

Here’s an example of a brief thank you remark that you might include in your retirement letter:

Thank you for the opportunity to work at this organization and for your guidance throughout the years.

5. Tell us about your experience with the company

Although it is optional, writing about your work history with the organization is a terrific method to remind your boss of your contributions and the good times you’ve had with them.

For example, if you’ve had a significant impact on their firm or worked there for many years, you could want to discuss how these events shaped you. An example of what a consulting professional wrote about their work experience is shown below:

I began working at this company in June 2004 and have seen our small consulting firm expand from 10 to over 250 workers. I’ve had a terrific time teaching our consultants and have hosted over 300 seminars, workshops, and mentorship sessions.

What Should Include in Your Retirement Resignation Letter

A retirement resignation letter should include the following:

Format

The letter should be formatted in the same way as any formal letter, with the addition of some retirement-specific statistics and a statement of your retirement plans.

The date

It is critical to schedule your resignation because benefits can be contingent not only on your retirement date but also on when you offer notice. If a query from human resources or senior management arises, including the date on the letter provides a physical means to establish when you gave notice—and how much time you provided.

Salutation as is customary

State your desired retirement date (your last day) and your thoughts on a transition plan in the body of the letter. Make your intentions known if you intend to assist with the transition or train a new employee. This gesture could generate more goodwill, which could help you transition into consulting or other part-time jobs in retirement.

You may only want to be available for a set period of time, such as three months. If this is the case, be as specific as possible.

Also, remind your employer of your present work title, length of time with the organization, and most notable accomplishments.

If you want to personalize your letter, express your appreciation for a rewarding career at the company and explain your retirement plans. Finally, put your contact information at the end of the letter.

You must decide how much time you will devote to your employer. While two weeks’ notice is the industry standard, many companies would like a lengthier notice period, particularly for retirement.

Giving your company adequate notice is critical to maintaining goodwill and aiding in the transition process. If you know you’ll be retiring at the end of the year, write your letter at least a month ahead.

Example of a Retirement Resignation Letter (Text Version)

Anytown, CA 54321 

Frank Jones 234 Main Street

567-567-5678 

frank.john@email.com

30 November 2028

April Lee

Manager

Acme Corporation

123 Business Rd.

Business City, NY 54321

Dear Madame Lee,

I am writing to advise you that I will be retiring on October 1, 2029.

I have thoroughly loved working for Acme Corporation, and I am grateful for the assistance I have received during my ten years with the organization.

The stimulation of our tremendous corporate culture and the possibilities for progress and promotion that were provided to me made waking up and coming to work each day a delight.

While I am looking forward to retiring, I will miss being a part of our team and the firm. I am confident that the friendships I have formed here will last a long time.

Please let me know if there is anything I can do to help you before or after my leave. I’d be delighted to offer any assistance to ensure a seamless transition to my successor.

Sincerely,

Signature (hard copy letter)

John Frank

Tips to Make Your Retirement Letter Polished

Consider these tips when writing your resignation letter for retirement:

Depending on your position and the organization’s culture, you can choose a casual or formal tone. For instance, if you’re a manager at a golf course, your letter might be more informal than if you are a chief financial officer for a Fortune 500 company.

Sending a well-crafted resignation letter is important in maintaining the company’s positive perception of you. Making sure your resignation is brief, concise and free of errors lets your recipients know you value them and your working relationship. After carefully proofreading and editing your letter, consider having a friend or colleague review it and provide feedback.

You should deliver your letter to your manager to allow them to plan for your departure. You may also need to send a copy to your human resources department in case they need to process your benefits.

You should try to deliver your letter in-person so you can interact directly with your manager. If you work remotely, it is acceptable to email your notice.

Retirement Resignation Letter Template

If you need a retirement resignation letter, simply copy the template and modify it to meet your requirements.

May 8, 2023

Name

Address on the Street

City and state

Name of the Supervisor

Title

Name of the Company

Street Address of the Company

City and state of business

Mr. or Mrs. Supervisor,

This letter is to inform you of my intention to retire on (Month) (Day) of this year. I’ve had a great time working for the organization and appreciate the possibilities to assist our (clients/customers).

I understand that it will take some time to train and prepare my replacement to take up my existing tasks. If you believe it would be advantageous, I am willing to make myself accessible during the month of (Month).

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to learn and grow with such an amazing team and company. My phone number is xxx-xxx-xxxx, and my email is x.

Sincerely,

Signature

Name Typed

It may be as easy as the letter above! Again, you may discuss your retirement intentions in a phrase or two, but keep it short.

Bottom Line

Writing a formal retirement letter of resignation is a big step toward officially resigning and leaving your job. It is an important document as it marks the beginning of your next journey. Follow the guidelines above to help your letter be as professional and polished as possible.

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In physical therapy, subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) notes are used to record critical facts about a patient’s condition.

These notes discuss patient care from several perspectives and assist therapists in providing the care patients require. Learning about SOAP notes and how to write them may be beneficial if you work in physical therapy.

In this post, we will discuss the purpose of SOAP notes in physical therapy, how to write your SOAP notes, and provide an example of physical therapy SOAP notes.

What are SOAP Notes?

These meticulous notes track a patient’s progress throughout their treatment. Physical therapy SOAP notes are the most comprehensive and structured manner for a physical therapist to document patient progress.

These notes are meticulously kept in the patient’s medical records. Detailed patient notes are essential because they help keep communication between physicians running smoothly.

Furthermore, SOAP notes help to inform the Clinical Reasoning process. This is the “process by which a therapist engages with a patient, gathering information, creating and testing hypotheses, and establishing optimal diagnosis and treatment based on the information obtained,” according to Physiopedia.com.

What Does SOAP Stand for?

SOAP is an abbreviation for:

  • Subjective
  • Objective
  • Subjective,  Assessment, and 
  • Planning

The American Physical Therapy Association recommends the following information for Physical Therapist SOAP Notes:

  • Factors influencing the intervention
  • Progress toward specified objectives
  • Communication with other healthcare practitioners, the patient, and their family.
  • The patient’s self-report
  • Specific intervention details Equipment utilized Changes in patient status 
  • Complications or severe reactions

SOAP is an acronym that stands for four critical aspects of patient documentation:

Subjective

SOAP notes’ subjective part highlights the patient’s perception of their condition, care, and progress. When diagnosing or tracking changes in a patient’s symptoms, medical personnel can benefit from the patient’s description of their experiences. This section may contain the following information:

  • Level of activity
  • Environmental considerations
  • The degree of discomfort
  • Mood
  • When symptoms first appeared or worsened

The subjective component stresses the patient’s reaction to their situation. Physical therapists use details in this part to document how physical therapy treatments affect their overall quality of life. They may use subjective data to modify a care plan to boost patient morale and satisfy their requirements.

Objective

SOAP notes objective information that outlines actions and measurements connected to the patient’s treatment. In this section, physical therapists outline how they obtain factual information about patients and the outcomes of their procedures.

Listing objective details assists the physical therapist in determining progress with physical therapy treatments. Here are some examples of data to provide in the physical therapy objective section:

  • Range of motion 
  • Strength level 
  • Ability to balance
  • Tests of motor skills
  • The vital signs
  • Physical treatment exercises
  • Treatment duration 
  • Equipment types 

Assessment

Physical therapists review the patient’s condition and provide professional perspectives on the patient’s recovery status in the evaluation part. Physical therapists may review previous SOAP notes and notice changes to develop their assessment.

This component gathers and analyzes information from the prior two sections to forecast a patient’s healing and assess the effectiveness of their current treatment plan. SOAP notes’ assessment section may include the following:

  • Patient behavior evaluation
  • Changes in physical abilities explained
  • Future progress projections
  • Symptoms in brief
  • Complications
  • Interactions with other healthcare workers

Plan

The planning part is the final area of SOAP notes, where the physical therapist describes their planned treatment for future physical therapy sessions.

The physical therapist outlines home therapy, referrals to other specialists, recommended medications, and arrangements for the next in-person consultation.

Physical therapists explain their reasoning for each treatment element and any modifications from previous plans when describing their plan.

How to Write Physical Therapy SOAP Notes

To create detailed, practical SOAP notes for physical therapy, follow these steps:

1. Make individual notes

Use shorthand to take quick personal notes about your interactions and observations while treating patients. Because SOAP notes are detailed descriptions of physical therapy appointments, they necessitate concentration and attention.

Attempting to fill SOAP notes during treatment may distract you and the patient, so taking quick notes or making recordings can assist you in producing thorough records after the consultation.

2. Make use of a narrative format

Use a narrative structure to convey your results when filling out the key sections of the SOAP note. Explain the patient’s experience and what transpires during the session chronologically. The narrative approach connects each SOAP note to a larger story about the patient’s physical therapy treatment.

3. Concentrate on the facts

When describing your observations, be direct and objective. To avoid making assumptions about a patient or indicating judgments about their activities, attitude, or healing progress, maintain a neutral tone. Keeping your SOAP notes focused on the facts of a condition preserves their integrity as a medical document and allows a care team to make reasonable decisions.

4. Make use of precise terminology

Please include information about the patient’s appointment so that other healthcare practitioners may easily comprehend their medical records. Explain who performed each action, what equipment they used, and how you measured each action in detail.

Provide evidence for each point and carefully analyze the notes to ensure they are clear and logical. Refine any ambiguous language and order your thoughts to help the reader understand.

5. Determine therapy objectives

Begin your SOAP notes after a physical therapy session by writing down your goals for the patient. Goals add meaning to the notes and help you to assess a patient’s progress quickly. Use exact numbers to convey success indicators, such as walking 100 feet without assistance or lifting 15 pounds.

6. Keep the notes

Add the SOAP note to the patient’s file once completed. Keep track of the appointment date and the SOAP notes in chronological order. SOAP notes are most valuable when they are immediately accessible and may be used to reference how a patient’s physical abilities change in response to various therapies.

Physical Therapy SOAP Note Example

Use this example to learn how to prepare for beneficial physical therapy. SOAP notations:

Calliope Matthews is the patient’s name.

The date is May 16, 2021.

Dr. Kerry Neves is the provider.

Healing flexor tendon (post-surgery) in the left hand

Goals: Show an average grip strength of more than 10 pounds. Completing finger-tapping tasks with 80% accuracy is required.

One month following tendon restoration surgery, the patient reports an overall discomfort level of 4/10 and growing sensitivity in his fingers.

She says she does radio-carpal abductions for 30 minutes every night, takes 400mg of ibuprofen twice a day, and splints her hand when not conducting a therapeutic activity.

“Not being able to play guitar is extremely terrible,” he says, expressing aggravation and depression about his lack of hand functionality. Denies having nausea, edema, or a temperature.

TENS unit was used to apply 40 minutes of nerve stimulation to the left hand, followed by 20 minutes of hand massage and finger mobilizations with the patient seated.

Three dynamometer grip tests were performed, yielding an average grip strength of 15 pounds at position two. Instructions for finger tapping were given with 75% accuracy.

The patient’s strength and muscular function improve as a result of following splinting and exercise instructions. The patient fell short of the mobility recovery goal by 5% but has no other issues that would signal significant recovery delays.

Constant splint use may contribute to a slower improvement in mobility. By continuing the splinting and exercise routine, the patient should anticipate continuous gains in strength and mobility. Counseling may be beneficial in dealing with the stress of rehabilitation.

Continue radio-carpal abductions and add 10 minutes of tendon gliding exercises to your routine. Reduce splinting to solely at night to promote individual finger mobility.

After one week, repeat the finger-tapping exam. Make an appointment with a counselor who has been referred to you.

Benefits of Writing Physical Therapist SOAP Notes

There are numerous advantages to writing SOAP notes. Let’s go over some of the primary reasons these notes will be helpful to you:

Evidence of Interaction

Your Physical Therapist’s SOAP notes are particular and can readily serve as documentation of your interaction with any given patient regarding legality.

The written documentation contains the fundamentals, such as date, time, and location, and specific data that may become essential, such as the treatments you delivered, your professional assessments, and much more.

As a Physical Therapist, you may encounter patients who require additional documentation for legal reasons. For example, those injured in an accident caused by someone else, youngsters, incarcerated individuals, and so on.

Peer Information Exchange

When exchanging information among peers, SOAP notes are usually considered the most accurate medical record-keeping. Your Physical Therapist’s SOAP notes are essential to a patient’s overall care because they nearly always have additional providers on their care team.

When it comes down to it, creating SOAP notes provides your patients with evidence that their other caregivers can use to help them heal. This is very handy while working on a complex case.

Data Collection for Future Use

Medical professionals can construct their mini-research library by keeping meticulous treatment records. What works, what doesn’t, and everything in between will be noted.

Writing excellent Physical Therapist SOAP notes is a tested and accurate way of data collection. This information gives reference points throughout a patient’s journey, allowing you and your colleagues to treat future patients more accurately.

SOAP Note Template for Physical Therapy

Here’s a template to help you with your SOAP notes:

Patient name: [Full name of the patient]

Date: [The appointment date]

Providers[Names of physical therapists and helpers]

Diagnosis[Description of the patient’s existing conditions] 

Goals[Explain the precise outcomes you hope to see in the patient during the session]

Subjective: [Describe the patient’s self-evaluation]

Objective[Summary of therapy and measurements administered]

Assessment[Assessment of the physical therapy appointment]

Plan: [Future therapy recommendation]

The Don’ts of Writing SOAP Notes

Subjective

The client indicated high motivation and participation. “I’m ready to work even harder today,” he added after finishing his schoolwork.

His mother said he was pleased to come to therapy today and had slept well the last few nights. His mother also said she did the at-home workouts with him every day this week, which she thinks is developing his confidence to work harder.

Avoid

Avoid unsourced opinions. In the example above, just saying “client was willing to participate” would be an opinion—and it’s unclear whose opinion—until you offer the client and his mother’s words to corroborate that observation.

Objective 

This part records your observations of client behavior, the interventions used in the session, client responses to those interventions, and measurable results linked to your client’s performance, such as test scores, goal percentages, and other quantitative data.

Avoid

Avoid generalizations without evidence. The session impression “client responded well to non-verbal cues” needs more detail. Clinical actions should be clearly stated and linked to the treatment strategy. Avoid verbs like “discussed” or “explored” since their aim is unclear.

Assessment

This part summarizes your session analysis, interpretation, and client progress toward treatment plan targets. Compare performance to previous sessions and note strengths and weaknesses.

Avoid

Avoid rewriting the Subjective or Objective portions. This is where you look back at the client’s progress or regression and determine what caused it.

Plan

Outline immediate therapy steps for your client. List all altered actions, objectives, and reinforcements. If your client isn’t progressing, try a new approach.

Avoid

Avoid rewriting your treatment plan. This section should detail your next steps to help your client reach their treatment plan goal. If necessary, alter cues based on client progress.

Bottom Line

SOAP is an acronym for Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan. Include the following items from the American Physical Therapy Association in your Physical Therapist SOAP notes to benefit you, your patient, and their entire care team:

  1. The patient’s self-report
  2. Specific intervention details 
  3. Equipment utilized 
  4. Changes in patient status 
  5. Complications or severe reactions
  6. Factors influencing the intervention
  7. Progress toward specified objectives
  8. Communication with other healthcare practitioners, the patient, and their family

Writing SOAP notes ensures that everyone involved in your patient’s recovery gets the information they need to do their best.

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A resume title (resume headline) is a brief sentence that summarizes a candidate’s experience and qualifications. A resume title’s objective is to make a first impression, attract the hiring manager’s attention, and entice them to read on. Good resume headlines are one-liner summaries of the job seeker’s industry experience.

It’s a technique for getting the hiring staff to say, “This is the proper kind of prospect.” When she reads your CV without a headline, the appropriate headline clarifies why she should continue reading. What’s the best part? Once you know the steps, writing a good resume headline is simple.

What is a Resume Title?

A resume title or headline is a one-line phrase that emphasizes and summarizes your professional qualities and communicates what you can provide to a company if recruited. 

Your resume title, like the headline of a news report, should be concise and easy to read. It should also emphasize the qualifications most relevant to the position you are applying for.

When Should a Resume Headline be Used?

Anyone can utilize a resume title regardless of industry, title, or expertise. A resume headline lets you showcase a handful of your most notable accomplishments if you’re a seasoned professional.

If you have little job experience or are new to the job market, the headline will allow you to highlight the qualifications you now have and aim to obtain in your career.

What is the Significance of a Resume Title?

According to eye-tracking research, recruiters look at each résumé for an average of seven seconds before moving on. Why is that figure so low? Here’s the solution:

Hiring managers receive hundreds of resumes for each position and do not have time to review each one. If they don’t find relevant information on your resume the first time they look at it, they’ll go on to the next one.

So, if you want a fair assessment of your resume, create a resume headline. With relevant talents and noteworthy achievements, a strong resume headline draws the hiring manager’s attention, guaranteeing your resume isn’t filtered out during the selection process.

How Should Your Resume Title be Structured?

While there is no set technique for writing a headline, it should have two elements. First, consider your current job title. Second, a noteworthy accomplishment.

This can be your years of professional expertise, a few vital job-specific talents, industry awards you’ve received, a dollar amount of income, or sales. It could also include a percentage of the rise or drop you made for improvement or anything else that helps you stand out from the crowd. Here are a few examples of headline structures:

  • Job Title with X Years of Experience in Expertise Areas
  • X Award-Winning Job Title Who Achieved This Outstanding Outcome
  • Who attained this result? Job Title with X Years of Experience

How to Create a Catchy Resume Title

When hiring for an open position, recruiters and hiring managers frequently analyze a large number of resumes. A well-written headline will help the reader rapidly comprehend your suitability for the job, allowing it to stand out. Here are a few pointers to help you improve your resume headline.

1. Carefully read the job description for abilities and experience

Carefully study the job posting to determine the qualities, abilities, and experience an employer requires. Please take note of the words and phrases they use to define an ideal candidate and write them down. Include such keywords in your resume summary, abilities, and professional experience sections when designing your resume. Identify your related or comparable talents if you don’t meet all the standards.

It’s also worth noting that online job applications are frequently sorted using software known as an applicant tracking system. This software searches resumes and cover letters for relevant experience, talents, and other keywords, making it easier for companies to locate competent individuals.

When proactively searching for prospects, employers frequently utilize the exact keywords from the job posting. You can boost your chances of being noticed by tailoring your CV to what companies are looking for. If you lack several of the above talents and experience, you may wish to narrow your job search to discover a better match.

2. Make a list of relevant hard and soft abilities

You should list the professional skills that qualify you for the jobs you’re applying for in your skills section. Employers will include the skill sets they seek in their job descriptions. Scrutinize the job posting, and make a note of any required abilities.

There are two kinds of skills: soft skills and hard skills. Interpersonal communication, organization, and attention to detail are soft talents. Hard skills are frequently associated with specialized equipment, software, or expertise (speaking a foreign language, for example). Hard skills differ by industry or job type, but soft skills are more general.

You can list your skills in a single paragraph, with a comma between each skill. Begin with the abilities in which you are most adept.

3. Create a concise resume summary

One strategy to highlight your most relevant qualifications is to begin your resume with a title or summary statement (also known as a resume objective). This summary should rapidly showcase your talents and professional objectives to any reader.

A title is the shortest version: it summarizes your accomplishments in one sentence. A summary or objective statement can be a little longer: one or two sentences are usually sufficient.

To begin, consider your best professional achievements and what characterizes who you are in the workplace. Read the job descriptions you’re considering carefully. Is a particular certification or years of experience required? The headline lets you inform the employer that you meet these qualifications.

A customer service representative with a track record of pleasing clients in the retail industry, for example, would write: Customer success expert with 3+ years experience delighting clients in the retail industry. Similarly, a skilled dental assistant would write: Certified dental assistant with 12+ years of direct patient care.

Both of the headlines above are excellent examples of engaging and descriptive headlines. You can match that with a slightly longer explanation of your skills and career goals if you wish.

4. Make use of an easy-to-read format

The purpose of crafting your resume is to make it as easy for employers to see why you’re an excellent prospect as feasible. This entails first emphasizing the most important and relevant information and deleting irrelevant or out-of-date information, such as employment held 15 years ago.

Include your name and contact information at the top and a résumé description, work experience, abilities, and education. For applicant tracking systems, complicated or overly formatted page layouts with columns, charts, or graphics might be challenging to understand. Remember to pick a simple, professional font at a 10-12 point font size, such as Arial, Calibri, or Georgia.

The arrangement of those components may differ depending on your background and the employment you’re looking for. Here are three of the most common resume templates that place each of the sections mentioned above differently:

The most frequent structure is a chronological resume, which first lists your career history section. A chronological resume is a smart choice if you have a long professional work experience with no pauses in employment.

A functional resume format highlights the skills section and is an excellent choice if you are changing industries or have gaps in your employment experience.

A combination resume format is a hybrid of functional and chronological resume styles. It is an excellent alternative if you have professional experience in which abilities and job history are equally essential.

5. Make a list of your professional work experience

After you’ve completed your resume summary, move on to your employment experience. (Please remember that your education may be listed before your professional experience in some situations.) Today, schooling is more commonly found after a resume, though this varies depending on your industry and when you earned your degree. We’ll get to education later.)

It is not as simple as writing down everything you have done in your profession to list your experience. Instead, mention the facts of your previous work that are highly important to the next task you wish to accomplish. To structure your professional experience, use bullet points rather than paragraphs. Begin with powerful action verbs and end with an accomplishment rather than a task. Employers care about what you’ve accomplished, not just what you’ve done.

6. Checking your resume for errors

You don’t want typos and spelling errors to prevent you from submitting a winning application after you’ve taken the time to prepare a fantastic resume. Reread your resume from top to bottom, then bottom to top again, correcting errors as you discover them. 

Having a friend or family member read it for you is also a good idea because they will see it with fresh eyes and can see faults more quickly. You’ll be ready to apply for jobs once you’ve proofread your resume. You can also make your Indeed Resume “public” so employers can contact you about suitable job possibilities.

Resume Title Examples

Here are a few examples of good resume headers for various careers that communicate a candidate’s worth and suitability for the position in a concise and easy-to-read statement:

  • Award-Winning Sales Manager With More Than 7 Years of Experience in Technology
  • High-Energy Sales Executive Who Exceeded Annual Quota by 20% for Three Years Consecutively
  • Peabody Award-Winning Editor With 10 Years of Experience Covering International Politics
  • Experienced, Multilingual Registered Nurse Specialising in Paediatric Care
  • Senior Marketing Strategist With Five Years’ Experience Managing Global Digital Campaigns
  • Energetic New MBA Graduate With Internship Experience in Global Economics
  • Executive Assistant With 10 Years’ Administrative Experience
  • Experienced Front Desk Professional with Five Star Average Customer Satisfaction Rating
  • Dedicated, Bilingual High School Educator Specialising in Health and Physical Education

5 Reasons to Write a Resume Title

Here are a few ways a resume title might save you from the job search abyss:

1. Helps emphasize your worth

A headline highlights crucial resume “selling points,” allowing managers to quickly determine who you are and what sets you apart from the competition.

Including a title on your CV demonstrates the benefit they would receive if they employed you. It describes the work you do and why you do it so well.

2. It helps if you have a lot of experience

Some contenders have accomplished a great deal. Walls of text, especially on a two-page resume, might perplex potential employers. They might not grasp your main points.

A resume headline provides them with a hold to grasp. It distills your extensive work history into a single theme. It demonstrates why you should be interviewed for this position.

3. It helps concentrate your pitch

Having difficulty with your elevator pitch? You’re not by yourself. It cannot be easy to summarize your professional strengths. Good resume titles can be beneficial. Writing a compelling resume title forces a rapid response to the “What do you do?” question and ” inquiry. It makes it easier for bosses to remember you.

4. Helps overcome the ATS

A catchy headline can help your resume get past the Applicant Tracking Software. Too many applicants are eliminated as “not a good fit” before a human sees them.

Put the proper keywords in the title of your CV to get hiring software to let you pass. The software immediately recognizes that you have the appropriate job title, abilities, and experience.

5. Less experienced applicants can use them to demonstrate their abilities

Writing a resume when you have no experience? A resume headline can demonstrate that you have the necessary employment abilities. It might demonstrate your ability to be innovative, high-performing, or a team player.

You can also highlight a significant accomplishment. Did you finish your Watson Fellowship? That’s not a horrible fact for an introduction.

Hire Top Resume Writers

Writing a resume title is one of the most important things to do when writing a career resume. It’s the first thing people see, which can make or break your chances of getting an interview.

A good resume title should be easy to read, catchy, and memorable — all traits easily achievable with the help of a professional writing service such as Peachy Essay. For some people, this may seem impossible, but it doesn’t have to be! You must be sure that you have thought of the best writing style for your resume. The objective of a resume is to get you hired, so it needs to stand out from all other resumes.

Peachy Essay Writing Services can help if you are looking for resume writers. These resume writers will create your resume based on your requirements and then write it in a manner that will help you get noticed by employers.

Peachy Essay writing services are available to individuals looking for work or improving their chances of getting hired. Their resume writers can help you create a unique and customized resume based on your skills and experience.

Most people have no idea how to write an effective resume that helps them stand out from the crowd. For your resume to be written so that it gets noticed by employers, you need professional assistance.

Bottom Line

By now, you should have a good sense of your resume’s underlying theme. With this in mind, you can write a compelling title that will call attention to the right things. This can include accomplishments not already included in the body of your resume and adding color and personality by comparing yourself to industry buzzwords. Everything on your resume should work together to get across these ideas—including the title.

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Like a car, students need to be driven in the right direction. And that’s why when writing. It is important to write in complete sentences with correct grammar and punctuation. Students who write in complete sentences with correct grammar and punctuation become better writers and readers. Writing complete sentences is one of the main reasons people get bad grades. 

Every student has to write at one point. And it is an unavoidable part of the educational process. Writing is an art and a science; students need to learn these skills from scratch. Writing requires time, patience, and practice. Here are tips to help students write in complete sentences and build their vocabulary.

How to Write in Complete Sentences

Sentence Manipulation

Break down sentences and focus on the fundamentals: subjects and verbs. Overall, you could go back to teaching students how to write sentences. Take some sticky notes and ask students (or prepare ahead of time) to label nouns and verbs. I will occasionally color code, such as utilizing green notes for verbs.

Then, play with the sentences. This can be done digitally by dragging boxes on a smart board. On a whiteboard, you can also move the sticky notes about and add direct objects or prepositional words. My favorite requires more preparation: putting words to blocks and practicing forming sentences. Students can compose sentences about each other if they have a solid classroom community.

Silly sentences work best, but any combination of subjects and verbs will suffice! Manipulate sentences to remind yourself what complete sentences are. Continue to utilize proper vocabulary with students. Using the correct vocabulary may seem obvious, but it bears repeating: utilize domain-specific jargon with students.

Collaborative Writing

In a writing workshop, addressing particular faults, providing direct instruction, and modeling are not always enough. You might compose whole sentences with children to have them write complete and easy sentences.

For example, request that students provide a topic so you can compose sentences for them. (If they can’t develop a theme, write about your dog, as I do.) Explain the distinctions to students.

You can construct sample sentences with kids on several themes. I frequently use phrases about my life to develop relationships, which allows me to manage what information I disclose. I’ve discovered that keeping the topic comparable helps pupils communicate the differences in sentence construction.

Then, go over those sentences again and correct them. Students may be able to identify an incomplete phrase, but do they have the tools to correct it? That’s where a solid grammatical background comes in handy: pupils get to choose how they correct each sentence.

Another approach is to collaborate with the learner on writing about their topic. Request that the student provides you with the initial concept, and then request that the student observe your writing. Hopefully, you and this student can work toward a gradual release.

Provide Focused Practice

Students may sometimes not comprehend the difference between a complete and incomplete sentence. The definitions and examples should come first. (I’m sure most high school students know the definitions, but that isn’t always the case.)

The subject or verb of a sentence is lacking in a fragment. A comma splice joins two sentences (two distinct clauses) with a comma. A run-on sentence comprises two or more sentences that are run together.

Give straightforward instructions and then have them apply what they’ve learned to their writing. It is helpful to place a completed worksheet and their writing with considerable difficulties. Students can revise their writing after reworking the sentences on the worksheet.

Take Phrases from Student Work

We revise complex sentences as a class in an effective complete sentence activity. I take phrases from student papers. I never expose student names, and I never choose something too intimate.

I paste the unfinished sentences into a Google Slide presentation, and we review them together. The quantity of scaffolding varies per class. This is typically the most successful method for teaching entire sentences.

Students are sometimes allowed to amend their mistakes. Sometimes we need to talk about why the sentences aren’t complete. Other grammar lessons automatically enter the picture (commas, semicolons, phrases).

Create a list of questions to ask about each unfinished sentence. Students may lack the necessary internal disc comprises the correct decision. As you read these sentences, verbalize what you are thinking. I even made an anchor chart out of those queries.

You can also divide students into groups or partners and assign each group or partner a slide to repair. Students are engaged in actual work and collaborating on writing tasks.

Highlight Each Subject and Verb

This activity is designed for individual students. When students are frustrated or are not seeing results in other ways, I resort to this. Select a text and have students highlight every subject and verb in that paragraph.

This exercise is not time-consuming, primarily if you circulate and work with individuals. The detailed dissection of a sentence truly helps pupils visualize their messages. (This procedure also aids in the elimination of poor sentence structure, such as “there is” and “there are.”)

Ask students to highlight the subject and verb of each sentence (digitally or on paper). Students should grasp that each sentence must contain at least one subject and verb. Students should add one if a sentence lacks one or the other. Use this time to talk about specific nouns (not pronouns unless they have an antecedent) and power verbs.

Next, time is spent conferring with pupils with difficulty locating their subjects and verbs. Students may have the components but cannot locate them or may lack subjects and verbs.

In this case, detailed and thorough conferences are beneficial. Students will readily add extra components once they understand the “subject-verb” structure. As you continue to work with a class, you will notice who requires additional assistance.

Steps to Write in Complete Sentences

Teach Directly!

Students must be taught writing skills in an organized and unambiguous manner to become good writers. Teach them that complete sentences can be short or long as long as they have two essential parts: a subject and a predicate.

The subject of the phrase indicates WHO or WHAT the sentence is about. The predicate is the part of the sentence that takes action. It describes the subject’s actions.

Students should also be taught that sentences must begin with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark. Explain why statements that tell us something are followed by a period (.).

Students must have numerous opportunities for practice and evaluation to learn to write in complete sentences. Look for literacy center activities that allow kids to practice developing and writing complete sentences. This ensures that kids receive consistent, repetitive practice.

Once you’ve decided on a center activity, begin introducing it to the entire class. Model how to accomplish the assignment clearly and then do it together- more practice!! Yay!

Practice until you are sure that all kids can perform the job independently. Finally, you can transform the exercise into a literacy center where kids can independently construct and write whole sentences.

Model

Elicit the subject and predicate from your pupils, then demonstrate how to combine those two elements into a complete sentence.

When writing a complete sentence, use think-aloud to let pupils hear your thoughts. “I start with a capital letter….include a subject….space my words out….include an action word….end with the right punctuation,” for example.

Demonstrate how you reread the phrases aloud to catch and correct typos. Show your pupil how you utilize a checklist to verify your complete sentences!

Apply To

Make it realistic! Why shouldn’t grammar lessons be taught separately? Grammar is best taught through student writing. Writing helps pupils learn more effectively!

Pennington Publishing lists 16 Reasons Why Daily Oral Language (D.O.L.) Although it is required for the preceding steps, true contractually allows pupils to learn at a deeper level. They must WRITE and APPLY their information! Get your kids to write and discuss the whole sentences they create.

5 Activities to Help Students Write in Full Sentences

Sentence building is the process of writing engaging and compelling content—writing aims to communicate your message in a way that will compel readers to keep reading. The first step in writing a sentence is to decide on the topic you want to write about and then think about what you want to say about it. Let’s look at the various sentence-building activities below:

Mixing Up Sentences 

This task is excellent for practicing putting the various elements of a sentence in a logical order that makes sense.

The intricacy of the sentences you compose will vary based on your pupils’ levels. Take, for example, the complete statement, “I enjoy playing.” And have students try to change it so it makes sense by writing it as “play to I like.”

Human Sentences

For this assignment, students will collaborate to create a compound sentence from two simple sentences, using suitable punctuation and conjunctions/connective adverbs.

Begin by writing two simple sentences on separate sentence strips (the simple sentences should be related and able to be combined to make a compound sentence). Then, on separate index cards, write two significant periods on separate index cards, one large comma, one large semicolon, appropriate conjunctions, and connective adverbs.

Distribute all sentence strips and index cards to various students in the class. Place the two students who received the sentence strips in the front of the room. Students with periods should rise to add punctuation to each sentence.

Then declare that it is time to combine the two basic statements into a single compound sentence. Bring up the two students carrying period leave and holding suitable punctuation and conjunctions/connective adverbs to finish the sentence.

Let Sentences Tell the Story

This practice will assist pupils in developing compound phrases and writing entire thoughts. You can do it orally or have students write the sentences that make sense, depending on your pupils.

Begin by offering a sentence beginning, such as “The kids were getting ready for lunch.” Then, to make a compound sentence, students should add a conjunction to the statement, such as “The youngsters were getting ready for lunch, and they wanted to eat pizza.”

The end of the previous sentence should then be used to begin the following sentence. “The kids craved pizza and asked their mother if they may prepare their pizzas.” In this manner, the game continues, with the end of one sentence being used to construct the following new sentence.

A to Z ESL Sentence Game

This assignment will force kids to think and write sentences. Students should write all of the alphabet letters on a piece of paper. Each letter should be on a separate line. Then, have students create as many phrases as possible, beginning with each letter. As an example:

This weekend, there will be a significant snowfall.

When babies are hungry, they cry a lot.

My favorite type of television show is a cartoon.

Do you want to accompany me to the movies?

Finish the Sentence

You might include images of five lemons and the sentence beginning with “I observe.” Then, students must choose the appropriate cards to complete the phrase and fill in the blanks for “how many,” “what color,” and “what.”

After that, students might practice with a similar sheet, such as one with eight red automobiles.

What Makes a Good Sentence?

Here is what makes a good sentence:

Use Correct Grammar and Punctuation

Avoid clichéd phrases such as “it is believed”, “it is reported,” or “it has been said that…” instead of stating facts or opinions (or both) where they are relevant to the discussion at hand. A good rule of thumb is that if you have read something before, chances are it will not be a good idea to quote it again unless you provide some context for why it was necessary at the time and still is today. 

For example, if you have read an article about how everyone should take their vitamins every day, then your reader would know that this is because of all the research showing that taking vitamin supplements can help prevent illness, injure yourself less often, and even live longer (which makes sense). If instead you just wrote, “it has been said,” then your reader would not know what type of advice you gave them about taking vitamins and so may not take them regularly.

Bottom Line

The best way to show students how to write in complete sentences is to set a good example. Modeling is one of the easiest ways to teach students the rules so they will see and hear them while they are being used repeatedly. Once students have seen that the style is practical, they will follow it on their own accord.

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Like a car, students need to be driven in the right direction. And that’s why when writing. It is important to write in complete sentences with correct grammar and punctuation. Students who write in complete sentences with correct grammar and punctuation become better writers and readers. Writing complete sentences is one of the main reasons people get bad grades. 

Every student has to write at one point. And it is an unavoidable part of the educational process. Writing is an art and a science; students need to learn these skills from scratch. Writing requires time, patience, and practice. Here are tips to help students write in complete sentences and build their vocabulary.

How to Write in Complete Sentences

Sentence Manipulation

Break down sentences and focus on the fundamentals: subjects and verbs. Overall, you could go back to teaching students how to write sentences. Take some sticky notes and ask students (or prepare ahead of time) to label nouns and verbs. I will occasionally color code, such as utilizing green notes for verbs.

Then, play with the sentences. This can be done digitally by dragging boxes on a smart board. On a whiteboard, you can also move the sticky notes about and add direct objects or prepositional words. My favorite requires more preparation: putting words to blocks and practicing forming sentences. Students can compose sentences about each other if they have a solid classroom community.

Silly sentences work best, but any combination of subjects and verbs will suffice! Manipulate sentences to remind yourself what complete sentences are. Continue to utilize proper vocabulary with students. Using the correct vocabulary may seem obvious, but it bears repeating: utilize domain-specific jargon with students.

Collaborative Writing

In a writing workshop, addressing particular faults, providing direct instruction, and modeling are not always enough. You might compose whole sentences with children to have them write complete and easy sentences.

For example, request that students provide a topic so you can compose sentences for them. (If they can’t develop a theme, write about your dog, as I do.) Explain the distinctions to students.

You can construct sample sentences with kids on several themes. I frequently use phrases about my life to develop relationships, which allows me to manage what information I disclose. I’ve discovered that keeping the topic comparable helps pupils communicate the differences in sentence construction.

Then, go over those sentences again and correct them. Students may be able to identify an incomplete phrase, but do they have the tools to correct it? That’s where a solid grammatical background comes in handy: pupils get to choose how they correct each sentence.

Another approach is to collaborate with the learner on writing about their topic. Request that the student provides you with the initial concept, and then request that the student observe your writing. Hopefully, you and this student can work toward a gradual release.

Provide Focused Practice

Students may sometimes not comprehend the difference between a complete and incomplete sentence. The definitions and examples should come first. (I’m sure most high school students know the definitions, but that isn’t always the case.)

The subject or verb of a sentence is lacking in a fragment. A comma splice joins two sentences (two distinct clauses) with a comma. A run-on sentence comprises two or more sentences that are run together.

Give straightforward instructions and then have them apply what they’ve learned to their writing. It is helpful to place a completed worksheet and their writing with considerable difficulties. Students can revise their writing after reworking the sentences on the worksheet.

Take Phrases from Student Work

We revise complex sentences as a class in an effective complete sentence activity. I take phrases from student papers. I never expose student names, and I never choose something too intimate.

I paste the unfinished sentences into a Google Slide presentation, and we review them together. The quantity of scaffolding varies per class. This is typically the most successful method for teaching entire sentences.

Students are sometimes allowed to amend their mistakes. Sometimes we need to talk about why the sentences aren’t complete. Other grammar lessons automatically enter the picture (commas, semicolons, phrases).

Create a list of questions to ask about each unfinished sentence. Students may lack the necessary internal disc comprises the correct decision. As you read these sentences, verbalize what you are thinking. I even made an anchor chart out of those queries.

You can also divide students into groups or partners and assign each group or partner a slide to repair. Students are engaged in actual work and collaborating on writing tasks.

Highlight Each Subject and Verb

This activity is designed for individual students. When students are frustrated or are not seeing results in other ways, I resort to this. Select a text and have students highlight every subject and verb in that paragraph.

This exercise is not time-consuming, primarily if you circulate and work with individuals. The detailed dissection of a sentence truly helps pupils visualize their messages. (This procedure also aids in the elimination of poor sentence structure, such as “there is” and “there are.”)

Ask students to highlight the subject and verb of each sentence (digitally or on paper). Students should grasp that each sentence must contain at least one subject and verb. Students should add one if a sentence lacks one or the other. Use this time to talk about specific nouns (not pronouns unless they have an antecedent) and power verbs.

Next, time is spent conferring with pupils with difficulty locating their subjects and verbs. Students may have the components but cannot locate them or may lack subjects and verbs.

In this case, detailed and thorough conferences are beneficial. Students will readily add extra components once they understand the “subject-verb” structure. As you continue to work with a class, you will notice who requires additional assistance.

Steps to Write in Complete Sentences

Teach Directly!

Students must be taught writing skills in an organized and unambiguous manner to become good writers. Teach them that complete sentences can be short or long as long as they have two essential parts: a subject and a predicate.

The subject of the phrase indicates WHO or WHAT the sentence is about. The predicate is the part of the sentence that takes action. It describes the subject’s actions.

Students should also be taught that sentences must begin with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark. Explain why statements that tell us something are followed by a period (.).

Students must have numerous opportunities for practice and evaluation to learn to write in complete sentences. Look for literacy center activities that allow kids to practice developing and writing complete sentences. This ensures that kids receive consistent, repetitive practice.

Once you’ve decided on a center activity, begin introducing it to the entire class. Model how to accomplish the assignment clearly and then do it together- more practice!! Yay!

Practice until you are sure that all kids can perform the job independently. Finally, you can transform the exercise into a literacy center where kids can independently construct and write whole sentences.

Model

Elicit the subject and predicate from your pupils, then demonstrate how to combine those two elements into a complete sentence.

When writing a complete sentence, use think-aloud to let pupils hear your thoughts. “I start with a capital letter….include a subject….space my words out….include an action word….end with the right punctuation,” for example.

Demonstrate how you reread the phrases aloud to catch and correct typos. Show your pupil how you utilize a checklist to verify your complete sentences!

Apply To

Make it realistic! Why shouldn’t grammar lessons be taught separately? Grammar is best taught through student writing. Writing helps pupils learn more effectively!

Pennington Publishing lists 16 Reasons Why Daily Oral Language (D.O.L.) Although it is required for the preceding steps, true contractually allows pupils to learn at a deeper level. They must WRITE and APPLY their information! Get your kids to write and discuss the whole sentences they create.

5 Activities to Help Students Write in Full Sentences

Sentence building is the process of writing engaging and compelling content—writing aims to communicate your message in a way that will compel readers to keep reading. The first step in writing a sentence is to decide on the topic you want to write about and then think about what you want to say about it. Let’s look at the various sentence-building activities below:

Mixing Up Sentences 

This task is excellent for practicing putting the various elements of a sentence in a logical order that makes sense.

The intricacy of the sentences you compose will vary based on your pupils’ levels. Take, for example, the complete statement, “I enjoy playing.” And have students try to change it so it makes sense by writing it as “play to I like.”

Human Sentences

For this assignment, students will collaborate to create a compound sentence from two simple sentences, using suitable punctuation and conjunctions/connective adverbs.

Begin by writing two simple sentences on separate sentence strips (the simple sentences should be related and able to be combined to make a compound sentence). Then, on separate index cards, write two significant periods on separate index cards, one large comma, one large semicolon, appropriate conjunctions, and connective adverbs.

Distribute all sentence strips and index cards to various students in the class. Place the two students who received the sentence strips in the front of the room. Students with periods should rise to add punctuation to each sentence.

Then declare that it is time to combine the two basic statements into a single compound sentence. Bring up the two students carrying period leave and holding suitable punctuation and conjunctions/connective adverbs to finish the sentence.

Let Sentences Tell the Story

This practice will assist pupils in developing compound phrases and writing entire thoughts. You can do it orally or have students write the sentences that make sense, depending on your pupils.

Begin by offering a sentence beginning, such as “The kids were getting ready for lunch.” Then, to make a compound sentence, students should add a conjunction to the statement, such as “The youngsters were getting ready for lunch, and they wanted to eat pizza.”

The end of the previous sentence should then be used to begin the following sentence. “The kids craved pizza and asked their mother if they may prepare their pizzas.” In this manner, the game continues, with the end of one sentence being used to construct the following new sentence.

A to Z ESL Sentence Game

This assignment will force kids to think and write sentences. Students should write all of the alphabet letters on a piece of paper. Each letter should be on a separate line. Then, have students create as many phrases as possible, beginning with each letter. As an example:

This weekend, there will be a significant snowfall.

When babies are hungry, they cry a lot.

My favorite type of television show is a cartoon.

Do you want to accompany me to the movies?

Finish the Sentence

You might include images of five lemons and the sentence beginning with “I observe.” Then, students must choose the appropriate cards to complete the phrase and fill in the blanks for “how many,” “what color,” and “what.”

After that, students might practice with a similar sheet, such as one with eight red automobiles.

What Makes a Good Sentence?

Here is what makes a good sentence:

Use Correct Grammar and Punctuation

Avoid clichéd phrases such as “it is believed”, “it is reported,” or “it has been said that…” instead of stating facts or opinions (or both) where they are relevant to the discussion at hand. A good rule of thumb is that if you have read something before, chances are it will not be a good idea to quote it again unless you provide some context for why it was necessary at the time and still is today. 

For example, if you have read an article about how everyone should take their vitamins every day, then your reader would know that this is because of all the research showing that taking vitamin supplements can help prevent illness, injure yourself less often, and even live longer (which makes sense). If instead you just wrote, “it has been said,” then your reader would not know what type of advice you gave them about taking vitamins and so may not take them regularly.

Bottom Line

The best way to show students how to write in complete sentences is to set a good example. Modeling is one of the easiest ways to teach students the rules so they will see and hear them while they are being used repeatedly. Once students have seen that the style is practical, they will follow it on their own accord.

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1.1 Overview

Education is an important part of wider social change processes that occur on a regular basis. Guangdong’s educational system China hasn’t always been as it is now. There was an unequal educational system in place. China has the largest educational system in the world. In June 2021, 10.79 million students in China took the National Higher Educational Entrance Exams. (Chen-Levi et al. 2021). Secondary school students have been accepted into over 1200 higher learning institutions across the country. China’s education spending contributes for around 5% of the country’s total GDP. The Chinese government passed a rule in 1986 requiring all Chinese students to enroll for nine years. The Education ministry claims that Over 97 percent of school-aged youngsters have completed a nine-year basic education program (Sekgota 2020).

China’s rapid rise to prominence as one of the world’s most influential countries in the international education. According to UNESCO statistics, Between 1998 and 2017, the numbers of Chinese students participating in degree programs abroad climbed by 59 percent, reaching over 900,000, making China the world’s largest sending country of international students (Benoliel 2020). This large influx of overseas students from world’s most populous nation, with a population of 1.5 billion people, has an unprecedented worldwide impact on higher education.

The presence of large groups of Chinese students on West university campuses has become commonplace. Students from China enroll three times as many international students as Indian students, the country is the second-largest. Tuition fees and student spending have become a growing economic factor for higher education institutions in countries like Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, contributing to local economies. Chinese nationals made up 35% of all overseas students in 2017. These students contributed to Australia’s largest services export, international education, by generating close to USD$8 billion in onshore revenue. (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021).

China has improved the education quality by overhauling the school curriculum and implementing other reforms. China’s Education Modernization 2035 programme was announced to set the direction for the education sector’s development from “capacity” to “quality,” and to ensure that education modernization supports China’s modernization (Sunker 2021). In 2020, China’s Ministry of Education will launch a pilot education program that will allow 36 top universities in the country, including Peking University, Tsinghua University, and Fudan University, to pick outstanding high school graduates willing to help the country’s key strategic needs. Under the Strong Base Model, universities will concentrate on increasing enrollment in fields like physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology, which have proven to be unpopular to students in recent times. Most students prefer to major in fields that will lead to high-paying jobs.

The Ministry of Education implemented a number of reforms in 2021, including a set of standards for Chinese mastery in international Chinese language education and guidelines for PE and health education teaching reform. The authoritarian aspect, rigid bureaucracy, and rule-bound hierarchy of different educational departments were frequently replicated at the school level, where the school principals held the majority of local power (Dugang 2020).

1.2 Background of the study

Traditionally, secondary school principals in Guangdong, China, had a rigid and domineering leadership style, with tight and constant control over teachers and school practices (Basson & Mestry 2019). Authoritarian attitude, fear losing power, school cultures rich in deeply ingrained attitudes, talents, and values, as well as cultural, gender, and ethnic variables, are all aspects that contribute to Guangdong school administrators’ preference for authoritarian leadership. These are aspects that have to do with humans.

Freedman & Somech (2021) attribute it to a perception of leadership as being connected to a formal position as a result of, among other things, teacher insecurity and current policy that emphasizes principal responsibility. Secondary education teachers are consigned to “mere stream cipher or automatons devoid of any reasonable understanding of human agency” (Naidoo 2019) within this basically top-down functionalist view of leadership in Guangdong schools. During the previous years, the majority of teachers’ leadership potential was largely untapped. The majority of Guandong teachers were efficiently and successfully prevented from playing meaningful roles as school leaders.

The authoritarian ideology that pervades many Guandong schools makes it difficult to create a free space conducive to creative deliberative and interaction exchange. At such school systems the likelihood of teachers being agents of their very own ultimate fate as opposed to functionaries of state is minimal. “Lowly ranked management teams are on the level of depositing, serving primarily as administrators, not privileged to take initiatives, utilize their creative knowledge and skills, and participate in decision making,” writes one scholar (Mosoge & Mataboge 2021).

1.3 Problem Statement

In secondary school, teamwork is essential to the efficient and effective management of teaching and learning. It also aids in the successful development of educational policies at the micro level, particularly in the classroom. Despite the difficulties in implementing flawed education reforms (Muirhead et al. 2018), the lack of teamwork, among other things, in the SMT at Guandong China high schools appears to have had an impact on educator performance in the classroom and the education quality.

The lack of teamwork in the educational system, according to this study, has the potential to influence the Curriculum and Assessments policy statement. There seems to be a dearth of collaborative expertise in SMTs, which has an impact on school achievement. The implication that teamwork with in SMT must be driven from an educational leadership perspective is at the heart of this research. In Guangdong China secondary schools, there has been little research on teamwork.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What do school management teams and teachers feel about lack of collaboration on the quality of education?
  2. What do school management teams teachers view teamwork in Guandong China secondary schools?
  3. What teamwork knowledge and skills do school management teams have?

1.5 Research Objective

The aims of this study are to:

  1. To determine the impact of a lack of collaboration between school management teams and teachers on the quality of education
  2. To determine school management teams views on teamwork in secondary schools in Guandong, China.
  3. To determine school management teams teamwork knowledge and skills.

1.6 Significance of the study

This research has the potential to help school management team members (SMTs) by providing them with the skills and information they need to keep sharing their leadership freely and equally in so as to maximize the educational value to students. It will also help the SMT understand how important teamwork is for effective and efficient school management. The study therefore aims to persuade the SMT that teamwork is important in improving school achievements by influencing teachers’ motivations and proficiencies, and the environment of the school.

Furthermore, the study has the potential to provide guidelines to the Education Department for improving SMT training on teamwork so that effective teams can exist in Guandong China Secondary schools.

 

1.7 Operational Definition

It is critical to define concepts in the study because they may have different connotations for different people and, as a result, their connotative meaning may be lost. The terms defined below are crucial to comprehending the discourse under this study. The following text contains more detailed explanations:-

1.7.1 Teamwork

Bush & Glover (2021)  describes teamwork is defined as the gathering of a working group of individual experts for the purpose of prescribing goals, making decisions together, cooperating, communicating and having the knowledge and able to work together to develop work plans that will help you achieve your goal. Teamwork refers to individuals or educational leaders who may not seek power over their coworkers but rather insist on the highest level of quality from all members.

1.7.2. Instructional leadership

The effective orchestration of the skills and abilities of teachers, students, and parents to ensure effective curriculum delivery is what instructional leadership is all about. They say that in order to succeed in this area, an effective principal must stay current with and understand trends in school curriculum development. The principal should act as a facilitator for both students and teachers.

A professional relationship between school leaders and teachers is referred to as leadership. An alliance in which the leaders take a support role and consider others to be constituents.” Instructional leadership, according to (Buthelezi 2021), is a process of striving toward the goal of effective education.  In this case, instructional leadership’s purpose and goal is to support, improve, and improve the quality of teaching. According to Mwita 2020, instructional leadership focuses on tasks that are directly related to teaching supervision and staff development while ignoring general management tasks. Instructional leadership “is no longer a completely seperate function different from a principal’s work responsibilities; instead, the simplest and quickest, most accurate way for a school principal to practice instructional leadership is through managerial activities he or she engages in on a daily basis,” according to (HARPHAM 2021). The broad definition of instructional leadership (Mkhabela 2019) includes management and leadership roles that indirectly influence teaching and learning process. Instructional leadership, according to (Padayachee 2021), is a moral responsibility in which leaders are unswervingly committed to the success of students and the development of teachers.

1.7.3. Perceptions

Individuals start organizing and interpreting their sensory experiences in perceiving and giving meaning to their environment. Furthermore, our perceptions and objective reality may differ significantly. Perception is defined as “the process through which we form perceptions of other people’s personalities and traits” (Zacharia 2021). “Perception is the process by which people select, prepare, and interpret sensory stimuli into meaningful information concerning their work environment,” according to (Bhengu & Blose 2022). They claim that perception is the primary determinant of human behavior, and that “no behavior can exist without perception.” They also list the following as components of perception definitions:

  1. Our environment has an impact on our attention, feelings, and actions.
  2. Perception aids in the collection of data from your surroundings, as well as the processing and interpretation of that data.
  3. It can be difficult to distinguish information from action in perception.
  4. It is essentially a mental understanding process.
  5. Perception assists the perceiver in gathering, processing, and channeling relevant data in order to meet the perceiver’s needs.

Perception is defined as “the process under which individuals interpret their sensory impressions in giving meaning to their environment” according to an internet reference. Whatever one person perceives might differ significantly from what another perceives, and both may differ significantly from objective reality. In fact, it is one’s sense of reality that determines one’s behavior, not reality itself. Perception is defined as “a process by which people select, organize, and interpret their sensory perceptions in order to give meaning to their environment,” according to the article (Doblinger 2022). Perception, it argues, is a cognitive process that differs from individual to individual. Instead of the actual reality, people’s behavior is influenced by perceptions of reality. Different people can have different perspectives on the same thing. Differences may arise as a result of factors related to the perceiver (motives, expectations, and attitudes), the situation (place or time), or the target (background, novelty, size and sounds). Perceptions, according to the first reference, play a critical role in personal decision making in organizations, influencing both the decisions and the efficiency of the decisions (Benoliel 2021). An individual’s decision is the result of a complex process that includes data intake, screening, processing, and analyzing statistics based on the individual’s perception.

1.7.4. Experience

Experience is defined as “the impact of any event, whether observed or participated in, on one’s judgment or feelings; direct and personal impressions as opposed to descriptions or fantasies; individual acquaintance; actual suffering or enjoyment” (Heystek 2022). Experience is defined as “a single or multiple act of knowledge whereby single facts or general facts are recognized; experimental or inferential knowledge; and therefore, inferring skill, facility, or practical wisdom gained through personal experience, sensation, or action; as a king without war experience.”

 

1.8 Organizational of Chapters

The research is divided into five chapters. The study is introduced in the first chapter. It also articulates the study’s main topic. The background, the significant, the research objectives and questions, and the overall study are all included. The literature review is presented in the second chapter. The study’s methodology is described in the third chapter. The study’s findings are summarized in Chapter 4. The recommendation and conclusion are presented in Chapter 5.

 

1.9 Chapter Summary

This chapter presents an overview and background, as well as a statement of the problem, research objectives and questions, and the study’s goal. The research method was also outlined, as well as the definitions concepts in this study.

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The research challenge and also the changes that have occurred since 1994 are the subject of this chapter. The improvements resulted in a more collegial and participatory view of the principal’s and staff members’ roles. This chapter will also discuss the obstacles and contradictory tasks that the school principal faces as a result of the educational sector’s transition.  Under the following headings, the chapter analyses the number of literature that pertains to my study question: management at the school (SBM); introduced and revised educational policies and strategies; School Management Teams’ Teamwork practices; a transition in leadership style from authoritarian to democratic; teamwork’s advantages; different types of teams; effective team traits; a team leader’s responsibilities; vision and instructional leadership.

2.2 SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT

China has a long record of placing a high value on education. There is a lot of society and family pressure on students to excel academically. Throughout history, this has supported educational reform on a variety of levels. Management at the school or at the location, as it is known in the USA, UK, Canada, and Australia is one strategy (Sekgota 2020). In this context, the major distinguishing aspect of the technique is the measurement of “self-management” chances such as school experiences.

School-based management is a method of reorganizing public schools so that educational stakeholders such as teachers, parents, students, and the general public have the opportunity and authority to enhance and improve their school. “SBM is believed to refer to an educational effective management shaped by the change in decision-making authorities and the migration of resources from the head office to the school,” according to (Chen-Levi et al. 2021). Academic institutions function within a legal regime set by the department of education on a global scale (Benoliel 2020). The degree of devolution in the education systems is one of the most important features of such a framework.

In China, the education system is nearly fully centralized. In 1952, the first National Department of Education was established, closely modeled after its Soviet equivalent. Before 1966, it went through three reorganizations. When the Revolution erupted in 1966, the Red Army, with Mao Zedong’s endorsement, dismantled China’s entire educational system. In 1975, the Department of Education was re-established as a single entity (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021). The Ministry of Education was institutionalized by the Governing Council as China’s political situation grew more stable. On June 18, 1985, China underwent a substantial restructure of its central educational administration (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021). The Committee Report of the National people’s congress in China’s 11th Plenary issued a resolution calling for the Ministry of Education to be abolished and the State Education Commission, a multi-functional executive department of the State Council, to be established.

Principal assumptions of collegial models include policy determination and conceptualization, decision-making relying on a procedure of consultations, agreements, and common understanding, and power sharing among some or all people in the organization who are believed to share a common understanding of the organization’s objectives (Sunker 2021). The SEC is China’s ultimate administrative authority for education, and it is responsible for producing individuals who are well-educated and well trained in a variety of subjects and fields (Sunker 2021). For first time in Chinese history, officials in charge of the state’s education systems hold positions of power in the Governing Council. The SEC develops significant educational policies, develops general educational strategies, coordinates educational projects overseen by multiple ministries, and leads educational reform.

2.3 IN A SELF-MANAGED SCHOOL, THE KEY ROLES THAT CONSTITUTE LEADERSHIP

The Department of Education of China has produced a China Standards for Principalship in order to continue to strengthen the Chinese educational system. The ministry outlines the principal’s responsibilities in detail. In a changing educational environment, school management assumes four characteristics that jointly define Principalship, according to (Dugang 2020). Three leadership styles are associated with collegial models: transformative leadership, participative management, and instructional leadership (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021). The central tenets of organizational management are a focus on the commitments and competencies of organizational members, and the fact that a greater level of personal commitment to organizational objectives and greater goal-attainment capabilities would increase the organization’s productivity.

These characteristics, when viewed individually, encapsulate the various roles that a school leader performs in a school when carrying out responsibility of the various constituencies they represents-the principal is a teacher, the governors, a change advocate, and a manager” (Basson & Mestry 2019). The nature of the interaction between one set of stakeholder and the school principal is defined by these several factors. By doing the following leadership activities, the principal can bring synergy and consistency to these various but complimentary functions:-

2.3.1 School principal as a governor: political leadership dimension:

In Shanghai, China, the principal is automatically a member of a team that assists in the formulation of the school’s vision and purpose statement, as well as providing direction, processes, rules, and other regulatory policies in accordance with Chinese government rules. The principle, like other governing boards, is responsible to the ministry, which is the employer (Freedman & Somech 2021). Unlike other members of the faculty, including the teachers, student, and the parents, who are answerable to their own constituencies, the principle is responsible to the employer who oversees the education ministry.

As a member of the governing body, the principle is responsible for providing leadership that encourages involvement from all school stakeholders in order to foster democracy, which is the primary purpose of education in China (Naidoo 2019). The principal adopts managerial leadership under the ministry, they hold this formal powerful position in order to carry out an obligation from the central ministry of education and training, such as the management of academic materials on that government’s behalf.

According to Mosoge & Mataboge (2021), the school principal is viewed as a manager of resources, or “tools” that will maximize “production,” since they are necessary inputs in the teaching and learning process to create “outputs.” As a result, the principal’s competence as a school manager is measured by the amount that these resources are effectively employed as he or she accounts for their use to the resource owners. Significant reforms and impacts from the Western and Russian Union educational models have influenced the system, but it was developed in the 1980s to be a more advanced, autonomous, and westernized system (Muirhead et al. 2018). For overseas students, the Chinese system of education is the second – highest in the world and the most popular study educational destination in Asia.

2.3.2 Transactional/managerial leadership role of the school principal as a manager

Transactional leadership, according to Bush and Glover (2021), is “leadership in which interactions with instructors are built on an exchange for some valuable resource.” According to the teacher, interactions between teachers and principals are typically episodic, quick, and limited to the exchange transaction. For members of organizations, exchange is a well-established political approach. Heads and principals have authority since they are the formal managers of their organizations (Buthelezi 2021). They also wield authority through significant rewards such as promotions and recommendations.

The head, on the other hand, needs the staff’s collaboration to ensure the school’s effective management. Both parties to an agreement may benefit from an exchange. Managerial leadership believes that leaders’ primary attention should be on functions, tasks, and behaviors, and that if these activities are performed successfully, the job of others from the organization will be made easier (Mwita 2020). Formal roles are assigned authority and influence in accordance to their level in the organizational hierarchy.

2.3.3 The role of the school principal as an agent: a transformational leadership aspect

Staff attitudes and preconceptions are influenced by transformational leaders. They instill a sense of devotion to the mission and strive to meet the organization’s goals at all times. As transformative leaders, principals are at the vanguard of the spiralling wave of educational change inside the SBM. The wave of innovation is sweeping through government, curriculum, and management. (HARPHAM 2021) say that “transformational leadership is founded on organizational members’ commitment and capacity.” Extra effort and productivity are expected to arise from greater levels of personal engagement to organizational goals and improved capacities for achieving those goals.’

2.4 TEAMWORK

Internal decentralization, which entails sharing leadership by transferring it laterally among members of staff, is promoted in existing research on school leadership. This comprises assigning people to leadership responsibilities with particular job duties in order to guarantee that leadership is diffused throughout the business and that group managers and leaders have the resources they need, as well as team leaders themselves, collaborate, collegialise, and work together (Mkhabela 2019).

Teamwork has been a top concern for educational leaders as they move away from autocratic leadership and toward more democratic management. This section claims that SMT members in the school would get involved in decision-making through teamwork. In a school, effective teamwork starts at the administration level (Padayachee 2021). Deputy Principals, principals, and departmental heads (topic) have the initial responsibility of creating the foundation for long-term teamwork among themselves, then with the entire school community.

2.4.1 Teamwork practices by SMT

According to Zacharia (2021), in the past, teams were not commonly used in schools. However, there has been an increasing trend in schools over the last 2 decades to use teams in important ways. This viewpoint is mirrored by (Bhengu & Blose 2022), who goes on to say that another aspect of education which has emerged to encourage and enhance use of teams as a tool of growing schools is school certifications. The Chinese Schools Act recognizes this zeal for teamwork, (Doblinger 2022), who points out that “it is just ridiculous to believe that only principals provides educational leadership for school growth.” The Chinese School Act is built on the concepts and goals of collaboration, which are entrenched in school-based management (SBM).

2.4.2 A transition in leadership style from authoritarian to democratic

“Teamwork can be a tremendously rewarding experience, but can also be very difficult,” according to (Benoliel 2021). It depends on a number of elements that managers must consider when determining whether it is rewarding or frustrating.” They go on to say that more current concepts of education leadership demonstrate in schools a shift away from authoritarian leadership and to a more democratic decision-making processes.

2.4.3 Advantages of teamwork in the SMT

To achieve a productive and comfortable workplace environment and implement innovative strategies, the education manager’s ability to organize, lead, and manage a team is vital. Certain organizations regard teams to be a need for best performance. The terms “involvement,” “commitment,” and “responsibility” are examples of this. Using teams allows a wider proportion of people to take part in decision-making, which is the first step to achieving a high degree of commitment (Heystek 2022).

2.4.4 The team leader’s role description

According to (Setlhodi 2020), expectations have shifted from management and control to a leader who can nurture staff development, parental support, local support, and student achievement, as well as deal with big expectations and changes. It will be naive to believe that without leadership, teams will basically remain operational. “Even a team has a dominant member who, for our intents, can be labeled a leader who may easily play a central role in deciding group success,” according to (Tigere 2020). The ability of a manager to form productive teams is critical to educational management success. Team success is determined, among other things, by the team leaders’ styles of leadership and managerial abilities.

2.5 THE ROLES OF TEACHERS AND SMT IN TEAMWORK, AS WELL AS THEIR SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE

This section will examine the many responsibilities played by other partners, teachers and SMTs in aiding principals through broad leadership allotment and also achieving potential educational advantages for all students. Schools could no longer be managed by a single person at the top, given the pervasiveness of inequities in the educational system and the breadth of new laws that necessitate dramatic reform in all its systems. Only by maximizing the abilities of all teammates and fostering a sense of responsibility and inclusivity among instructors, and allowing them to lead portions of the transformation process will schools be able to meet the difficulties (Kamalizeni & Naidoo, 2018).

2.5.1 SMT and Curriculum delivery

Quality education for everybody is one of the international goals that all organizations have set. Education’s minimum guidelines and standards are established in a country’s National Curriculum Standards and policies. Internal efficiency in China is measured using nationally and internationally standardized assessments as well as research projects.

2.5.2 SMT and community relationships

The Chinese system of education requires that community participation in the formation of educational policy be acknowledged as a vital element in education, and all stakeholders be involved in all aspects of the national curriculum, according to (Kamalizeni & Naidoo 2018). The autocratic rule principle should be increasingly reflected at all levels of the educational system, according to the Ministry of Education, by elected officials of the key stakeholder, interest groups, and role players participating in discussions and applicable methods of decision-making. This necessitates a commitment on the part of all educational authorities to disclose all necessary information with stakeholders involved and to consider them as true partners.

2.6 DIRECTIVES FOR IMPROVING SMT TEAM BUILDING TRAINING

Despite the expanding popularity of teams, according to Zwane (2018), the growing need to understanding how teams might improve their performance has not been met by research on team building. Students should be educated and developed so that they possess the knowledge and skills to help the school achieve its objectives. They must also be encouraged, by being given the necessary authority to contribute to the improvement of educational quality.

Individual educators must be educated and trained in order to perform effectively within the ideal conditions that leader has set up for them. Effective leaders spend time getting to know their employees, discovering and identifying their needs, appreciating their contributions, and supporting and assisting them in realizing their full potential. This can be accomplished by on-the-job training and encouraging employees to pursue official certifications (Funabashi et al. 2021).  It is stated that a school or college’s dedication to continual learning is critical to attaining its goals through a shared vision (Molise 2021). ‘Educational groups, be they the nurseries, schools, or universities exist to assist learning in some form or another,’ the experts add. Learning is a primary goal for those who work in them, no matter how remote some of their everyday responsibilities appear to be from this.’

Person who cleans and upkeep buildings, playground, and fields, as well as those who prepare and serve meals to pupils do so in order for students to learn in the best possible environment. Similarly, the clerical staff’s primary goal in dealing with documentation is to serve the same objective as the systems they oversee (Lethoko 2019). It is critical that all of these employees comprehend the essential idea that they really have the potential to grow in their respective roles and, as a result, become lifelong learners.

 

2.7 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

According to (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021), (Mosoge & Mataboge 2021), (Padayachee 2021), and (Bhengu & Blose 2022) their studies on conceptual models, revealed that teamwork, instructional leadership, perceptions and experience (IV) among School Management Team members impacts positively on the school effectiveness (DV) (quality of teaching and learning). According to (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021) teamwork (IV) represents a working group of individual i.e. school managers prescribing aims, communicating, cooperating, making decisions together, knowledge and ability to work together in making work plans to achieve the goal. To succeed in this regard, the instructional leadership (IV) states that an effective principal must be aware of trends in the development of the school curriculum (Doblinger 2022). He or she must be an enabler for both the students and the teachers.

The process through which people arrange and interpret their sensory experiences so as to make sense of their surroundings is known as perception (Bhengu & Blose 2022). According (Padayachee 2021), he explains that what we perceive can differ significantly from objective reality. Additionally,  (Doblinger 2022) explains that experience is a single or multiple act of knowledge by which single facts or general truths are ascertained; experimental or inductive knowledge; thus implying skill, facility, or practical wisdom gained through personal knowledge, feeling, or action when this variable comes together effectiveness is achieved (Funabashi et al. 2021).

Independent Variables                                                              Dependent Variable

 

Figure: Conceptual Framework (Adapted from Mestry & Govindasamy 2021), (Mosoge & Mataboge 2021), (Padayachee 2021), and (Bhengu & Blose 2022).

2.8 CONCLUSION

The school-based management authorities continues to grow, the area under administration and the principal’s assigned duties, is increasing. The chapter covers four aspects of school leadership in the context of school-based management: Governors are in charge of political leadership, teachers are in charge of instructional leadership, agents are in charge of transformative leadership, and managers are in charge of management leadership (manager). Perspectives of different stakeholder groups (teachers, community, and parents, teachers) on the school management team as representatives in schools, and the four pillars of multi – faceted educational leadership which support the above aspects, namely viewpoint, practice, strategies, and vision, have also been shared in detail.

 

3.1 Introduction

Methodology is a lot more practical, and it refers to the process of acquiring reliable information. Methodology refers to the “tools” used to gain knowledge in the real world. It also includes the researcher’s underlying assumptions and methods. The paradigms or research tradition under which the research was done is referred to as methodology. The approach is utilized whenever data is collected using interviews and questionnaires, according to the researcher’s interpretation of the method. Methods can also refer to specific study procedures that a researcher use to do research on a certain issue. They can be thought of as “instrument” for analyzing data. This chapter lays out the basis for the data gathering research strategy and methodologies I used. Using a mixed-method methodology that included both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, the study was able to investigate teamwork activities in two lagging high schools and their two feeder schools. The study’s goal, as mentioned in chapter one, provided the basis for using this methodology.

3.2. Research Design

According to (Mestry & Govindasamy 2021), researchers have discovered that utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in the same study is the best strategy for responding to research questions, the creation and use of mixed method approaches has expanded throughout the years. Mixed method research is defined by (Chen-Levi et al. 2021) as a design that includes both theoretical concepts and methodologies of inquiry. It includes theoretical assumptions that govern the direction of collecting and analyzing data, as well as a blend of quantitative and qualitative methodologies throughout many stages of the research process. It focuses on gathering, evaluating, and combining both quantitative and qualitative data in a same study as a methodology. Some writers urge that qualitative and quantitative research aspects be incorporated at all phases of the research process, while others propose that the stages be maintained distinct before integrating them for the findings (Benoliel 2020). The key beliefs of mixed method as a design (Sunker 2021) are that using quantitative and qualitative methods together provides a greater understanding of scientific challenges than using either method alone.

“The use of mixed-method study designs, which integrate qualitative and quantitative methodologies, has become increasingly common,” as according (Dugang 2020). “Studies are not confined to using approaches based on traditional designs, either quantitatively or qualitative, utilizing mixed-method designs,” the researchers add. The researchers also point out that one of the major benefits of mixed method research is that they may reveal both the quantitative and qualitative results, as well as why they were acquired (qualitative). Researchers have learned over time that using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in the same study is the best strategy to answering research questions. As discussed by, utilizing a mixed-method design has both advantages and cons (Basson & Mestry 2019).

The researcher collected data and examined the outcomes using survey questionnaires in this research. After that, data was gathered through interviews, which were then examined individually. By combining data analysis approaches and countering the strengths and limitations of each method, a more thorough and full view of data was obtained. I was able to conduct an in-depth analysis on the SMTs’ daily teamwork practices and how they will be viewed and experienced thanks to the mixed-method approach. The approach was the best for addressing the issues identified during the literature research and data collection. The research was able to combine the effectiveness of both the qualitative and quantitative designs by employing a mixed method approach. In addition, this methodology gave a more complete picture of what’s being examined, focusing on quantitative findings and the technique that led to those outcomes.

The researcher was able to develop a more comprehensive set of study questions and findings as a result of the type of the data he obtained. The researcher’s choice of a mixed-method design paid off at the end of the study in terms of SMTs’ experiences and perceptions of teamwork, and a discussion of why the results was achieved. Not everything that can be counted can be numbered, and not everything that can be counted can likewise be counted.

 

3.3 SAMPLING

Collectively, the group of participants or participants from which the data was obtained is called the sample,” according to Freedman & Somech (2021). The sample can be drawn from a broader group of people known as the population, or it can refer to the group of people from whom data can be obtained. “The nature of sampling process utilized in a specific study is frequently defined by one or many descriptors, like stratified, convenience, or random sampling” the researcher added. This is the method that was used to create the sample. The data for this research was gathered from SMT members from 49 schools for this research within Guangdong, China. SMT members, i.e., principals and deputy principals; head of departments and senior teachers; and one post-secondary educator per school, were the target respondents. Age, gender, post level, professional degrees, managerial experience, workloads, and the number of teamwork seminars attended in the previous three years were all factors included in the study.

 

3.3.1 PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING

“In purposeful sampling (also known as purposive, or judgement sampling), the researcher picks selected aspects from the population which will be representational or informative about issue of interest,” Mosoge & Mataboge (2021) write. They state again that “a judgment is made regarding which individuals should be chosen to offer the greatest information to answer the research’s aim based on the researcher’s understanding of the population.” According to the experts mentioned above, it may be more helpful to interview key employees instead of a randomly selected of the staff when studying school effectiveness. Several sorts of purposeful sampling techniques for qualitative research are described by Muirhead et al. (2018). In quantitative research, the focus is mainly on the researcher’s judgment in selecting a sample which is representative of the entire population or comprises participants with required qualities. That instance, the focus is often on representativeness, whereas qualitative studies are more interested in picking “information-rich” instances.

Buthelezi (2021) argues that, in contrast to probability samples, intentional sampling entails “selecting information-rich situations for in-depth study” (HARPHAM 2021) when one wishes to learn more about a specific case without needing or intending to generalize to all similar circumstances. Purposeful sampling is conducted to make the information received from tiny samples more useful. Before the sample is selected, information regarding changes among the sub-units must be acquired. In this research, the researcher sought out information-rich selected respondents (SMT members) and locations (schools).

They are well-informed and aware about the occurrences that the researcher looked into. Purposeful sampling, according to (Padayachee 2021), is a strategy where a certain environment, person, or event is purposely produced in order to provide crucial information which can be gathered from other sources. “When a sample is chosen via purposeful sampling, the researcher choses respondents in the sample based of his/her evaluations of the respondents,” Zacharia (2021) says of purposive sampling. (Bhengu & Blose 2022) define purposeful sampling as “choosing information-rich situations for in-depth examination.” “Purposeful sampling is conducted to maximize the validity of information received from small samples”, according to (Doblinger 2022). Before the sample is selected, information regarding changes among the sub-units must be acquired.

The researchers then look for key informants, people, places, or incidents to analyze that have a lot of information. In other terms, these individuals were selected since they are likely to know a lot about the phenomenon the researcher is looking at. Purposive sampling is among the most prevalent sampling procedures, according to the internet search. It divides respondents into groups based on pre-determined qualities relevant to a particular study topic. The resources and time given, as well as the study’s goals, which may or may not be stated prior to data collection, dictate sample sizes. The size of intended sample sizes is typically determined using theoretical saturation. Purposive sampling works best when data review and analysis are done at the same time as data collection.

The schools that were chosen for this study were chosen with care. The schools were selected because their grade twelve scores had either underperformed or great performance” (going in and out of the traps zone) for the previous three years. Age, gender, professional degrees, management experiences, workloads, trainings completed in the previous three years, languages used, and school location were utilized to classify the population into subsets.

3.4 DATA COLLECTION

The specification of techniques to be utilized in locating relevant reviews is part of data collecting (Benoliel 2021). The fundamental objective for gathering data, in my opinion, is to get orientated and get a feel of the scope of the identified topic. Data is collected using a variety of methods, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The researcher took this into account when choosing relevant data collection methods. Certain approaches and techniques were used to examine the collaborative practices of SMT representatives in the selected public schools in terms of addressing research concerns. During the data collection procedure, the mixed-method instruments that follows were utilized to gain insight on how SMT members adopted collaboration in various schools: a thorough literature review of collaboration practices, questionnaires were provided, and interviews were done.

Individual questionnaires and FGI (focus group interviews) were adopted in collecting data in this study. A focus group interview or conversation, according to (Heystek 2022), is essentially a small (typically six to twelve persons) group brought together solely to debate a single issue under the guidance of a facilitator with a list of issues to discuss. Focus groups have the advantage of providing descriptions in voices that are unique to each group.

In a short amount of time, FGI gathers data from a variety of sources. Conversation and reactions are sparked by group dynamics. The goal of this mixed-method study is to learn about School Management Teams’ and educators’ perspectives and experiences with teamwork in their duties as instructional leaders, and the variables that impact their problems and triumphs as curricular implementers at the ministry of education. A comprehensive literature analysis on teamwork practices was done, questionnaires were devised and given on-site, and on-site subjective interviews were held in the data gathering process.

3.4.1 QUESTIONAIRE

Respondents will be able to gain a better understanding of their collaborative management thinking, which would include common ground and points of disagreement within a group; they will be able to formulate new ideas on how to take advantage of potential educational opportunities; and they will be able to identify action plans that will assist them in focusing on the development, according to Setlhodi (2020). The researcher uses questionnaires since they are very inexpensive, have same questions for all participants, and may ensure confidentiality, as stated in the article (Kamalizeni & Naidoo 2018). “Questionnaire survey can include questions or statements, though in all cases, the respondent is reacting to something created for specific goals,” these researchers write.

 

3.4.2 INTERVIEWS

“The interview is a favored methodological instrument for qualitative research,” explains Zwane (2018). Furthermore, interviews are “attempts to grasp the world (or phenomenon) from respondents’ perspective, to reveal the significance of personal views, and to unveil their lived reality prior to scientific explanations,” according to (Funabashi et al. 2021). 2021 (Molise) Describe interviews as “mostly vocal questionnaires.” My supervisor gave me permission to utilize the above-mentioned valid data. I was able to have direct connection with participants, conduct in-depth questioning, and obtain lengthy replies about teamwork through interviews with respondents.

This was also done so that personally identifiable information could be obtained and nonverbal and verbal behavior could be observed in person. To enable for personal responses, semi-structured questions were used. A survey of the literature on teamwork led to the creation of research questionnaire items that were closely related to the study’s aims. I acted as an interviewer during interview, the researcher was extremely pleasant and helpful, maintaining eye contact with the respondents throughout, demonstrating attention. As a researcher I protected my own position by speaking less and listening more. As a result, acceptable interactions with respondents were developed.

 

3.5 DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis is “a continual, circular process which is incorporated into all stages of descriptive study,” according to Lethoko (2019). Explorative test enables categories and patterns to emerge from data rather than being imposed on it prior to collection. Data analysis is “the process that provides order, direction, and significance to the quantity of data collected throughout a study process,” according to (Mapaire 2019). Data analysis, according to (Chen-Levi et al. 2021), is a procedure in which the analyst must write down his or her knowledge of the data. This study’s key research topic is “How do SMT members view teamwork in their educational contexts?”

The goal of the study is to find out how SMT members interact with one another, how they see collaboration, and whether they have enough knowledge and abilities to establish a team. The goal of the study was to see how collaboration affects the quality of education, as well as whether the Education department is doing much to help SMT members form effective school teams. The goal of data analysis in this study was to enable the researcher to connect meaning to the data, which aided in answering the research issue. Data was analyzed by comparing and categorizing responses to interviews and questionnaires. As a result, the data was matched to the evidence from literature review that was then cross-checked for similarities and differences amongst the 39 schools. The material acquired during the exercise was scrutinized for topics that matched the themes highlighted in the literature review.

3.5.1 SPSS PACKAGE

The statistical analysis was done with the help of a computer. The study’s results were calculated using the SPSS. The researcher’s first step in the process would have been to construct descriptive analysis for each participants in the study. Statistics such as frequency set of scores, percentage, weighted mean, and standard deviation were included. Patterns have been discovered. (Benoliel 2021) assert that data analysis should lead to a better comprehension of the problem and the development of a “new” practical theory which can supplement existing knowledge.

According to (Sunker 2021), analysis entails “splitting up” data into understandable theme, trends, patterns, and linkages in order to comprehend the many constituent aspects of one’s data. “Statistics are ways of organizing and evaluating quantitative data,” according to (Dugang 2020). To summarize and analyze data for his research, he used descriptive or summarizing statistics. The nominal, category, or classificatory level of measurement was chosen as a starting point.

3.6 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

Because no single strategy is completely appropriate for collecting data on the topic under inquiry, I employed a variety of approaches to evaluate data, allowing me to optimize validity and reliability. This was crucial in maintaining validity and dependability since it allowed for the confirmation of data from several sources and guaranteed that the shortcomings of one approach were offset by the benefits of another. Validity is defined by (Basson & Mestry 2019) as a determination of a measure’s suitability for specific inferences or conclusions based on scores generated. As a result, validity is determined by the measurement’s goal, population, and a contextual aspect. Validity is defined by (Freedman & Somech 2021) as the degree with which scientific explanations of phenomenon match the reality of the world. It relates to the veracity or untruth of research-generated propositions. Reliability and Validity are critical components of mixed-method research.

Validity is defined as “consistency of measurements, or the level to which scores are identical across various forms of same measure or occasions of data collection” (Mosoge & Mataboge 2021). “Validity is an assessment of the applicability of a measurement for specific inference, assumptions, outcomes, and applications that come from the score that are obtained,” according to Muirhead et al. (2018). Validity, according to (Bush & Glover 2021), has assumed numerous shapes and is thus more than just a demonstration that a given instrument measurement what it claims to measure. In quantitative method, they believe that validity can be improved through purposeful sampling, use of appropriate methods, and appropriate statistical analysis of data.

3.6.1 PILOTING

Prior to the final collection of data, the survey was piloted in three schools, one secondary and two primary. There were questionnaires and interviews conducted. The same questionnaires and interviews were utilized as in the research. A letter was composed and sent to the Area manager seeking permission to conduct the pilot research. The location and purpose of the piloting were among the specifics in the letter.

3.7 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Research Ethical considerations, according to Buthelezi (2021), refers to the moral components of research — what is good and wrong while conducting research. Because scientific evidence is an aspect of human behaviour, (Bhengu & Blose 2022) argues that such conduct must adhere to universally accepted standards and values. The researcher adopted the following three basic criteria, which were originally described in The Educational Report and form the internationally acknowledged basis for research ethics, to ensure conformity with fundamental research ethics standards:

  1. Respect for people- the researcher is obliged to ensuring that study subjects’ autonomy is protected, and that where autonomy is threatened, people are protected from being exploited because of their fragility.
  2. Beneficence—in this case, the researcher minimized the dangers of study, such as social and psychological risks, while maximizing the gains to study subjects.
  3. Justice- the researcher pledged to ensure that the benefits and risks of study are distributed fairly.

 

3.7.1. INFORMED VOLUNTARY CONSENT

“Informed consent is a strategy for making sure that participants know what it means to engage in a certain research project so that they may decide in a conscientious, deliberate manner whether or not they wish to join,” according to an online search. It’s among the most crucial instruments for ensuring that people are treated with respect during study (Doblinger 2022). The researcher’s first task in attempting to gain consent would have been to inform the subjects about the study in a way that they could understand. This was accomplished through a set of meetings held involving principals of the selected schools, during which the research was explained.

Questions looking for clarity were accepted. Principals promised during these sessions to share the information with their colleagues SMT representatives and teachers during their briefings sessions at their individual schools, where interested persons will be selected. This was accomplished successfully (evidence is the feedback obtained from schools). Authorization was also requested from the Guangdong Department of Education’s head of research directorate to legalize the entire procedure. The people who would eventually make up the study’s sample was asked for verbal agreement and the study’s process was outlined to them. This study’s subjects were not compelled to take part.

3.7.2. PRIVACY

Conversation is a social process that necessitates reciprocity. In other words, when researchers collect a lot of data from participants, they may feel compelled to “provide” equivalent data in return. Researchers are no exception. Individuals enjoy sharing on what they overhear and learn. Before data gathering could begin and specific protection mechanisms put in place, the researcher carefully assessed whether or not to breach respondents’ privacy in any way. The ethical considerations that are critical are confidentiality, trust, and privacy (Heystek 2022). Closed-door interviews were used to keep them going. According to the constitution’s mandates, the researcher was required to respect the participants’ rights and protections.

3.7.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

One limitation identified was that some schools found it difficult to return the answered questionnaires on time. Only 32 of the 39 schools that were initially sampled returned the filled questionnaire. The majority of respondents were apprehensive about using audio and video records. As a result, the researcher was not able to make use of these resources.

3.8. CHAPTER SUMMARY

The research technique used to investigate collaborative activities in a sample of secondary schools in Guangdong, China was covered in this section. The data collection strategies utilized in this investigation were appropriate. The research strategy, method, data collecting, and processing processes were all covered in depth in this chapter. The mixed research method integrated the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches in order to address the research objectives. The research’s participant sampling, surveys, and interview methods were all equally appropriate. The reliability and validity of the measurement instruments were also discussed. The chapter also discussed ethical considerations that were made to ensure that the participants’ rights were not contravened and the study facts. The next chapter will go through data analysis.

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ABSTRACT

The goal of this research is to determine the impact of transformational leadership on project success, both directly and indirectly (via good communication). There is a direct correlation between transformative leadership and project success. However, there has been a lack of investigation on how this link works. Efficacious communication may play a mediating role in the relationship between transformational leadership and project success, according to the findings of this study. Transformational leadership and project success are linked in part by good communication, according to this study. The theoretical and practical ramifications of this work are discussed in light of these findings. The empirical relationship between project success and transformative leadership will be established. However, less effort will be expended to comprehend the processes that underpin this link. This study will examine this topic and propose good communication as a possible explanation for the association between project success and transformative leadership. Data will be collected from 100 construction project managers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and analyzed using SPSS.

1.0 Introduction

This introduction chapter covers the research’s history, problem statement, research aims, research questions, study significance, study limits, and term definitions.

1.1 Background of the study

The ability to complete a project is known as project success. Effectiveness is linked to good time, budget, and success in this scenario. Project leadership and management skills, on the other hand, are critical to project success since the project manager has a direct impact on project accomplishment (Zaman et al., 2019). In today’s world, a project is deemed successful if it meets its deadlines, budget, and performance goals. Traditionally, project success has been defined as a project’s ability to meet all of its objectives within the budget and timeframe stated (Raziq et al., 2018). Similarly, project managers’ success is determined by their efficiency, or how well they employ limited resources to fulfill project objectives while focusing on building good connections with diverse stakeholder groups. Project leadership and managerial skills, project purpose, connection with customers and shareholders, and cost effectiveness are among the qualities that effect project performance (Podgórska & Pichlak, 2019).

In the past, projects were only judged successful if they met their time, budget, and performance goals. Nonetheless, according to (Maduka et al., 2018), there is still no agreement on what success includes and how project success should be judged. They recommend that different persons evaluate project success using various approaches and at different times. Furthermore, as time goes and circumstances change, project success indicators may shift. There is a lot of debate on the criterion used to judge success, according to (Eisenberg et al., 2019). For instance, even if a project is completed on schedule and on budget, it still is considered a failure if it fails to meet the company’s strategic goals.

Other viewpoints, on the other hand, claim that project manager has a substantial impact on the project’s success. A project-based organization fails at a substantial rate, according to (Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020), with many project failures attributed to a lack of effective leadership. In order to accomplish a project, a lack of good leadership abilities will demoralize project team members and, as a result, reduce their job efficiency. This remark is backed up by (Ghazinejad et al., 2018), who argue that a strong leader may use their abilities and knowledge to solve any issues that arise during the project. The project manager’s effective leadership style, understanding, and competency will have a direct effect on every phase of the construction cycle in this setting. Planning, implementation, able to monitor, supervision, and closure are the five key phases of a typical project. These five basic phases make up the path that leads from beginning to end (Afriyie et al., 2019). During the planning stages of a project, for example, the project manager monitors team members as well as other important stakeholders through public and private decision-making in order to accomplish agreed-upon goals and objectives.

Another factor that impacts whether a project succeeds or fails is project cooperation. (Mansaray, 2019) discovered that project manager leadership and teamwork were positively related to project success. The positive contributions of team members, which include decision-making and the execution of project tasks, aid in the achievement of the project’s aims and objectives. According to (Maqbool & Sudong, 2018), project leaders’ ability to interact with project team members and communicate the project vision and mission is a crucial element in project performance at each stage of the project’s life cycle. Members of the team cannot work effectively without the involvement of a competent leader who supervises the group, facilitates team member conflict resolution, and establishes the direction for the team to achieve the project objectives. The respect that project manager who serve as mentors earn from team members is a major motivator, as it allows them to put their demands ahead of their own. (Guinan et al., 2019).

One of the most crucial determinants of an organization’s successes and failures is its leadership. As a result, effective leadership and effective coordination between employees and management are responsible for the organization’s success (Ardi et al., 2020). The term “leadership” is a complicated concept that varies from person to person and is applied to a variety of fields. Leadership can be described as the art of persuading others to work freely toward a common objective. The way leaders interact with their staff is referred to as their leadership style. In other words, management’s capacity to execute a collaborative endeavor is contingent on leadership competency (ALKAABI et al., 2020).

According to the literature, there are various leadership theories, including both conventional and modern theories. Each theory depicts a different aspect of leadership style, and each theory explains the leader-follower relationship in a different way.  (Taylor-Ghampson, 2020) outlined the many sorts of leadership styles that are most commonly employed. Bureaucratic autocratic, democratic, dictatorial, laissez-faire, charismatic, transactional, and transformational leadership are examples of leadership styles. Leadership styles can be divided into two categories. Autocratic leadership is characterized by a bossy leader who exercises absolute control and makes all decisions. The autocratic leader wielded total power, which he still wields now (MAMUYE, 2019). Democratic leadership is characterized by a focus on human interactions and teamwork, with employees having the opportunity to participate and make decisions. Researchers have recently focused their emphasis on the link between leadership styles and work performance.

Firms must explore contemporary strategies to boost their performance in today’s environment of ever-increasing competition. In order to boost a company’s performance, it must have a number of different characteristics. Many previous research have focused on critical aspects that influence organizational success (Loh & Lau, 2018). It is crucial to have a good understanding of the factors that influence the positive enhancement of organizational performance. Prior studies demonstrate that transformative leadership and innovation have a critical influence in boosting organizational performance. While previous studies looked at the reciprocal link between the two parameters, the current study fills in the gaps by evaluating the impact of transformational leadership on performance of the organization via the lens of quality innovations (Glyptis et al., 2020).

Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership style that enable firms to affect positive changes in people and societal systems. It creates meaningful and lasting change with the goal of turning followers into leaders. Transformational leadership, according to (Park & Pierce, 2020), promotes employee achievement and self-development. In fact, transformative leadership paradigm in which managers motivate, inspire, and intellectually excite their followers to invent important and beneficial change that helps the firm boost and shape its future competitors.

The concept of transformational leadership emphasizes values, feelings, and the importance of leadership in fostering individual innovation. Individuals are important assets in the organization that transformative leaders should pay attention to, as they are one of the intangible assets that can help firms achieve long-term success (Jensen et al., 2018). Transformational leadership aims to retain a heartfelt bond with followers while also instilling unique principles. Such a leadership style has the potential to contribute to a common cause while also instilling meaning, morality, and a feeling of purpose in followers. Transformational leadership is seen as a key driver of innovative culture, which is used to produce ideas with a high potential for success (Zhang et al., 2018). This leadership style encourages employees to go above and beyond their abilities in order to achieve business objectives. Such leaders also increase intellectual inspiration by improving people’s intelligence and ingenuity, allowing them to solve problems and find answers more effectively. On the other hand, innovation is often regarded as one of the most important factors for success and survival in any firm. In a volatile business climate, Afsar et al. (2019) considered innovation to be a crucial factor of organizational performance. It results in continuous improvements that help firms survive, leads to product and process advances, and assists organizations in achieving positive results and being more effective than non-innovators. Nowadays, innovation is regarded as a recommended practice for competing because it supports continued success of businesses by stimulating growth and assisting them in maintaining their course. Firms who fail to exercise innovation, or, in other words, adapt to fast changing settings, will suffer a slew of issues and, as a result, will be forced out of the market in a complex and volatile economy (Purwanto et al., 2019). As a result, innovation is often regarded as a critical driver of efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness.

1.2 Problem Statement

Failing to finish a project at any organization or on any project is a possibility. Furthermore, if the project is not finished within the given timeframe, budgets, and targets, it is considered a failure from the perspective of project management. Failure to complete a project has a significant influence on the reputation, sales volume, and profitability of the firm (Carreiro & Oliveira, 2019). A project is regarded a failure if it fails to deliver what was promised within the agreed-upon time schedule and budget. In most cases, although, the partners determine if the project was successful and not based on their evaluation and satisfaction with the results.

According to Okundaye et al., (2019), an increasing number of project failures have a negative impact on the overall company. Any project that fails has a negative influence on the company because it results in large financial loss for shareholders, investors, financiers, stakeholders, and even employees. As a result, the company is still more prone to failure. Because of the risk of insolvency, it is even more important for the company to mitigate any potential the variables that contribute to project failure.

According to Morrison-Smith and Ruiz (2020), project success is very important for all organizations to succeed in business competition, and project manager management has been found to be positively related to project success. According to (Khosravi et al., 2020), a successful project cannot be executed without effective communication and teamwork among project team members. Failed projects caused by poor resource management leadership result in direct financial losses on operating costs. It is the project leader’s obligation to decrease the risks of project failure, according to (Sousa & Rocha, 2019). A project leader should deal with all hurdles, including excellent communication, to ensure the success of any project.

According to Khosravi et al. (2020), management and good communication are critical at all phases of the project. The project manager, as the team’s coach, should lead the team from the beginning of the project to project accomplishment, as well as deliver in accordance with all key stakeholders’ necessities. He also created the full-range leadership paradigm, which highlights three leadership styles which can be combined with communicating effectively: transactional, transformational, and laissez-faire leadership. Transformational and transactional leadership have aroused the interest of project leaders because of their relevance to projects as contrasted to laissez-faire that is thought to be rather detrimental in nature, according to Cichosz et al., 2020.

 

1.3 Research objectives

The following are the main objectives of the study

  1. To examine the effect of transformational leadership style on the success of a project
  2. To examine the effects of transformational leadership style on effective communication
  3. To study the effect of effective communication on the success of a project
  4. To examine the effects of the transformational leadership style on the success of a project thru effective communication

 

 

1.4 Research Questions

This study provides us with the answer of the following questions;

  1. Does the transformational leadership style affect project success and team communication?
  2. Does transformational leadership style impact project success?
  3. Does effective communication have a role to play between project success and transformational leadership?

 

1.5 Significance of the study

The conclusions of this study will provide new insight to researchers because there are few previous research on this subject. This study will benefit project managers in project-oriented businesses by looking into the importance of management in project management. As an outcome, project leaders will notice that most efforts will be successful if they use the right leadership style with project participants. Furthermore, project directors would recognize the need of teamwork in enhancing project success through effective leadership. Recognizing the implications of this relationship could help project-based businesses maximize goals of the project through the positive effects of communication and leadership. It will enable firms to choose appropriate leadership and run their operations effectively despite the impact of styles of leadership. More research suggestion: Because there has been so little research on this subject in Malaysia, future scholars would have plenty of opportunities.

 

1.6 Glossary

Perception is everything in transformational leadership (Zheng et al., 2019). It only succeeds if it can change the core of the follower’ emotions. Because they are captivating and motivating, transformational leaders grasp the role of communication. Although training courses include “transformational attributes,” whether transformational leadership is viable depends on the leader’s own effort (Trakulsunti & Antony, 2018). Transformational leadership and employee engagement in decision-making are encouraged by project managers because it has been proved to deliver the best results (Daniels et al., 2019). As a result, adopting transformational leadership is unlikely to improve project outcomes or productivity. Furthermore, as project managers become more informed, creative, and capable, they will no longer accept any leadership which is not transformational (Al Khajeh, 2018). If you’re in control of a project, you’re usually in control of a group or groups of individuals that turn to you for direction. If you have greater leadership qualities, you will be a great project manager. We’ll discuss the impact of transformational leadership on project performance through effective communication in this piece.

 

 

2.0 Introduction

This chapter entails basic concepts such as a brief reflection on the nature scientific inquiry as well as the main theoretical concept used as reference point throughout the rest of the thesis.

 

2.1 Literature review

Transformational leadership development is an important issue for all Malaysian organizations today. An effective leader may persuade people to follow him or her in order to achieve or exceed a common goal. To name a few, all successful leaders have characteristics and qualities such as excitement, authenticity, and a large purpose (Abdullahi & Alias, 2022). These characteristics or habits will not guarantee success, but they will make it more likely.

Some people assume that many of these leadership skills come naturally, which is true in some circumstances. We do understand, although, that leadership skills may be acquired through practice and retroactive review of each leadership situation’s effects. The most of leadership comes from experience. The rest of this article will begin with describing what a successful leader is, as well as the different forms of leadership that are required for organizations to become successful and long-lasting.

 

2.2 Theoretical Foundation

2.2.1 Transformational leadership

For first time in leadership studies, transformational leadership was introduced by (Zhang et al., 2018). According to (Rezvani et al., 2018), transformational leadership is a type of leadership that enables team members to take ownership of their tasks while also enhancing employee motivation, contentment, and performance. Leaders who use a transformational style of leadership promote, motivate, and urge their staff to innovate and make changes that will help the organization improve and build its successfulness (Liu et al., 2018). Transformational leadership is a form of leadership that focuses on change and improving collective and individual performance. Leaders with a conscientious disposition are more likely to be transformative, according to (Li et al., 2019). The vision is crucial to any organization’s success because it drives employees in the direction of the organization’s goals. According to (Sanyal & Hisam 2018), transformational leaders have the power to modify enterprises based on their long term vision, and by communicating that vision, they may urge others to help them realize that vision.

2.2.2 Project success

According to (Alvarenga et al., 2019), success of a project can be characterized as a relationship in which other requirements must be met first, in addition to the traditional dimensions of quality, time, and cost. For example, the customer organization’s strategic goals, end user pleasure, and accurate approvals from other stakeholders involved must all be accomplished. Successful project outcomes are determined by the extent to which the project completed tough tasks that efficiently met a certain set of objectives within the constraints of time, performance, and budget (Guzmán et al., 2020). Although the project performance criteria are typically determined during the early phases, in reality, a number of unrecognized requirements must be met first for the project within a company to be successful.

2.2.3 Transformational leadership and project success

According to (Para-González et al., 2018), transformational leadership and project success are strongly linked. (Rezvani et al., 2018) backed up the concept that project delivery was strongly linked to leaders’ transformational leadership attitudes. All four qualities of transformative leadership are substantially associated to project success, according to (Cruz et al., 2020). (Crayne & Medeiros, 2021) found that the intellectual stimulation part of transformational leadership stimulates the creation of creative knowledge, concepts, ideas, and creativity in businesses. (Skad, 2019) established a strong correlation between a leader’s style of leadership and the creativity and innovation of his or her subordinates. (Phong et al., 2018) investigated the transformational leadership styles of employees and management team and found no significant differences in their leadership styles.

2.2.4 Communication

According to (Brown et al., 2019), Communication is a collaborative activity that involves everyone at all levels. According to (Elrehail et al., 2018), the word communication is derived from the Latin verb communicare, meaning to share. (Oreg & Berson, 2019) described communication as a metaphorical medium via which one people can communicate with another. The first step in designing a communications plan, according to (Shafi et al., 2020), is understanding what type of information each stakeholders needs, and then choosing the most effective way to communicate based on these requirements.

2.2.5 Effective communication and transformational leadership

Malik et al., (2021) looked into the various communication attributes linked with transformational leaders and found that transformative leaders who communicate with their teammates one on one are more effective at communicating the company objectives and empowering their employees to perform better within their organization. Face-to-face engagement is more expensive than other communication behaviors, according to (Sony & Naik, 2020), since it needs a significant amount of time from the leader. In large corporations, connecting with every employee is difficult. Communication is absolutely a solitary activity with genuine implications for the effectiveness of transformational leaders’ actions, according to (Podgórska & Pichlak, 2019). Leaders’ success is determined by how successfully they use communication abilities, according to (Alrowwad & Abualoush, 2020).

A manager should be able to effectively communicate, address issues, and manage a population, which is made up of all items or events of a particular sort on which researchers seek information and knowledge. A population might be vast (for example, adult males in the USA) or narrow (for example, blogposts in the first 24hrs after a major event) (Maduka et al., 2018). Even when a population comprises of a limited number of sets of objects, collecting data on each individual is sometimes impractical or impossible. Instead, researcher chooses a manageable part of the population, known as a sample, for study (Eisenberg et al., 2019). Researchers make inferences about population from which the sample is drawn based on their findings about the sampling. Effective reading, writing, and listening.

Effective communication needs more than just transferring information. It’s all about figuring out what emotions and motivations lie beneath the data. You must be able to communicate clearly a message and listen in a way that you understand the complete meaning of what’s being said and that the other person understands and feels heard. It appears that effective communication is an inherent instinct. However, when we communicate with people, something typically goes wrong. We say a thing, but the other person interprets it another, resulting in miscommunication, dissatisfaction, and conflict. This can cause problems in your school, home, and job connections (Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020).

To communicate more clearly and effectively, all of us will have to acquire a few key skills. Whether you want to improve communication with your partners, children, management, or coworkers, understanding these communication skills will help you build stronger relationships, get more respect and trust, improve teamwork, solve problems, and improve your overall emotional and social health (Ghazinejad et al., 2018). You can improve your communication efficacy by thinking about your audiences, practicing listening skills, refining your message, and selecting the appropriate medium or environment.

 

2.3 Hypothesis Development

Since it is informed by what you have already known about a topic, a hypothesis is often referred to as an educated guess (Afriyie et al., 2019). This phase in the process is identifying all hypotheses that deserve further investigation, bearing in mind that hypothesis production and hypothesis evaluation are two different things. It’s unlikely to acquire the right answer if the analysis doesn’t start with the right hypothesis. Psychological studies into how people generate hypotheses reveals that they are actually quite bad at considering all of the options. As a result, it’s a good idea to gather a group of analysts from various backgrounds and viewpoints for a brainstorming session during the hypothesis generation stage. Brainstorming in a team sparks creativity and often uncovers options that individual teammates had not considered (Mansaray, 2019). Prior to determining likelihood or practicality, experience reveals that early group discussion evokes every possibilities, no matter how remote. Only when all of the alternatives have been considered is the focus shifted to evaluating them and picking the hypotheses to be investigated further in subsequent analyses.

It’s important to distinguish between hypotheses which appear to be rejected and those that are just unproven while screening out the supposedly improbable theories (Maqbool & Sudong, 2018). There is no indication that an unproven hypothesis is correct. There is positive proof that a refuted hypothesis is incorrect. Early rejecting of unproven but not rejected hypotheses distorts the analysis since the research that might verify them is not sought. Hypotheses that haven’t been proven should be retained until they are disproved. The notion that an opponent is attempting to deceive us is an example of a hypothesis that frequently falls into this unverified but not disproved category (Guinan et al., 2019). You may dismiss the possibilities of rejection and deception because there is no evidence, but in these circumstances, rejection is not acceptable. If deception is well-planned and executed, there should be little proof of it readily available. The option should not be dismissed until it is disproved, or at the very least, until no evidence has been uncovered following a thorough search.

There is no “ideal” number of hypothesis to think about (Ardi et al., 2020). The number is determined by the complexity of the scientific problem and your level of analysis. The greater the level of uncertainties, or the larger the consequence of your decision, the more possibilities you should explore. And over seven hypotheses could be overwhelming; if you have this many options, you might want to combine them together for your first go at the analysis.

 

2.3.1 Effective communication, project success and transformational leadership

Transformational leadership has an influence on project performance as well as effective communication, according to the literature review. As a result, we may hypothesize that effective communication is a link between transformative leadership and project management success. Self-leadership and nursing performance are strongly linked. According to (Loh & Lau, 2018), there is a strong link between leadership and management professional skills and project success. According to (Glyptis et al., 2020), a manager’s communication talents are critical to project success; as a result, organizations should pay attention to project leader qualities and help them improve their communication skills. According to (Park & Pierce, 2020), there is still a significant correlation between project managers’ leadership talents and the success of their projects.

A construction manager can be more efficient in talking with their project team members by observing some relatively straightforward to recall issues and concerns connected to communication. Effective communication will usually result in better outcomes and, as a result, a greater chance of success of the project (Jensen et al., 2018). While many contributing factors to project communicating failures, it is ultimately the project manager’s responsibility to ensure effective project communication. A lot of variables contribute to communication disruptions. However, project managers can take a few simple steps to lessen the likelihood of miscommunication. Successful projects are frequently built on effective communication. Effective communication may bring team members and stakeholders together to agree on a project’s plan, goals, and budget. It can also help those involved with the project understand their responsibilities, making them more likely to support it (Zhang et al., 2018). In construction projects, effective communication starts with a project plan.

Organizations who adopt a project communication plan and increase project communication can benefit from more successful projects that is especially crucial in todays complicated and competitive global business world. Purwanto et al. (2019) found that better project communication plan raises the chances of meeting goals. Your success as a project manager is contingent on successful projects. Each project should have a solid project communication plan in place. Make sure to show that you understand project deliverables, their impact on the business, and the level of quality reached for each one (Carreiro & Oliveira, 2019). Tailor your communication to every audience so that they remain involved, confident, and supportive in the project’s success.

Organizations who implement an effective project plan and improve project communication can reap the benefits of more successful projects, which is especially important in todays competitive and complex global business world. Purwanto et al. (2019) found that better project communication plan raises the chances of meeting goals. Project success is key to succeeding as a project manager. A good project communication plan should be in place for each project. Make sure to show that you understand project deliverables, their impact on the business, and the level of quality reached for each one (Carreiro & Oliveira, 2019). Tailor your communication to every audience so that they remain involved, confident, and supportive in the project’s success.

They continuously gather information from all aspects of project management and transmit it as needed to people who require it for their jobs. As a result, they should have the necessary communication skills and tools to effectively communicate knowledge. Ineffective communication, according to (Khosravi et al., 2020), can risk project management safety and project quality. As a result, project managers must have excellent communication skills, including the ability to communicate honestly, listen to employees, passing on pertinent information, include project staff in decision-making, and handle problems as they arise. Based on the foregoing, we contend that project management team job satisfaction is influenced by both communication and leadership.

2.4 Review of Prior Empirical Studies

Performance can be measured in several ways. It can also be described as the ability to successfully blend relevant actions to meet corporate objectives. The ability of project managers to integrate relevant inputs for the improvement of project management processes could be described as project work performance. Employee productivity, according to (Sousa & Rocha, 2019), is ascertained by the worker’s level of engagement in the organization’s daily operations. Employees act in a variety of ways depending on the situation. Despite the various key terms used by professionals to describe styles of leadership, (Khosravi et al., 2020) claims that the styles in use by men in leadership roles can be divided into three categories: autocratic, democratic, and mixed. Studies have also explored three different leadership styles. The democratic leadership style underlines team and leader involvement in policymaking. Organizational decisions are made after extensive proper consultation with various members of the organization.

The leader makes every effort to make each person feel like an important person in the organization. While opinions are transferred between staff members and the leader, communication is multidirectional. A high level of employee morale has always been enhanced under this leadership style. Because it encourages each employees to participate in the decision-making process. Nonetheless, the leader has final authority and makes the final decision. The democratic style serves to strengthen the leader’s position as a respected leader (Zheng et al., 2019). Leaders are not anticipated to be full-time parents, and that is why they hire informed and capable staff. This leader views his employees as part of a partnership and motivates them to participate in decisions that affect them. Such leaders achieve success through collaboration. The job performance of subordinates is usually excellent because employees feel involved in or part of decision-making and work with zeal (Trakulsunti & Antony, 2018). Several studies have found that a people-oriented (democratic) approach is more effective than an autocratic approach.

 

2.5 Conceptual Framework

The anticipated link between communicating effectively, transformational leadership, and success of a project is depicted in the conceptual framework. The impact of transformative leadership, effective communication, and project success are all highlighted in this conceptual framework. Effective communication clearly serves as a link between transformative leadership and project success. The study’s theoretical premise is to analyze the effect of transformational style of leadership on the success of a project through effective communication. Transformational leadership and effective commenuication are independent variables, while organizational success is a dependent variable. The relationship between transformational leadership and effective communication are direct outcome of effectiv styles was created to be favorable and beneficial to the project manager.

 

development.

 

Theoretical framework of the study

 

2.6 Research Hypothesis

This study draws the following hypothesis to test –

H1       There is relationship between effective communication and transformational leadership.

H2       There is relationship between project success and effective communication.

H3       There is indirect impact of transformational leadership on project success.

H4       Transformational leadership have an indirect impact on project success through effective communication.

 

 

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter examines a variety of tactics and procedures for responding to research questions, as well as providing detailed information on the structure of research methodologies and the motivations for using them.

3.2 Research design

This study will employ a quantitative research design. This is a research article that is descriptive and analytical. Employees in Malaysia’s construction industry were polled. This study’s items were modified from previously published research. Elements from (Daniels et al., 2019) research were used to assess transformational leadership. The effectiveness of communication was assessed using items drawn from (Rezvani et al., 2018) and approved by (Rezvani et al., 2018). (Sanyal & Hisam 2018). Items drawn from (Para-González et al., 2018) were used to assess project success. A well-planned research design ensures that the methods used match the research objectives, that high-quality data is acquired, and that the correct kind of analysis is used to answer the questions using reputable sources. This enables valid and reliable conclusions to be drawn.

3.3 Study Population and Sampling Procedures

The study’s target population is Malaysian construction company’s project managers. Project leaders in the construction industry in Kuala Lumpur provided data. Data was collected via questionnaires based on surveys. A questionnaire was distributed to 100 project managers using the convenience technique. This study used the convenience sampling approach, which is a sort of non-probability sampling (Crayne & Medeiros, 2021). Because of time and cost restrictions, the convenience sampling strategy was utilized to collect data. Oreg & Berson, (2019) indicates that in research, sampling is incredibly beneficial. It’s the most crucial aspects of determining the accuracy of the research findings. If there is a discrepancy with your sample, the final result will reflect this.

A population is comprised of all things and events that belong to a specific category on which researchers seek to learn more. The breadth of a population can be large or small (Shafi et al., 2020). If a population comprises of a limited number of sets of things, obtaining data on each individual can be difficult or impossible. Instead, researchers choose a manageable sample of the population to investigate. Reflecting on the observation of sample, researchers develop inferences about population in which the sampling frame was taken.

 

3.4 Data Collection Method

The information on variables was acquired through the use of personal questionnaires that were delivered via email. Questionnaires distributed through the internet could be handled swiftly, shared easily, and respondents can answer them at their own pace. As a result, one of data collection strategies was an online questionnaire. The first page of the questionnaire’s covering letter served to inform survey respondents about the study’s purpose. The purpose of the study was to urge project manager to respond to the questionnaires on a voluntary basis while also ensuring them that the information obtained would be kept confidential. Data collection is a systematic process of acquiring observations or measurements. Whether you’re carrying out a study for academics or an organization, data collection helps you gain first-hand data and new insight into the subject issue (2020, Sony & Naik).

3.5 Operationalization and Measurement

The units of measurement for this study were project leaders who led a team on a building project in Kuala Lumpur. In addition, project management professionals were consulted for information on the project leader. The process of operationalization entails defining exactly how a concept would be measured. The variable, the measurement, and how you plan to analyze the measure must all be included in operational definitions (Para-González et al., 2018). Multi-dimensional concepts are measured using indexes, scales, and typologies. In the end, the researcher’s interpretation of what their subjects say will determine the concepts in a qualitative study. Unlike quantitative research, which requires specific definitions in advance, qualitative research enables for idea definitions to arise during data analysis.

 

3.5.1 Independent variables

Ten items were used to create transformational leadership scales. In addition, five elements were used to assess transformational leadership in terms of individualized considerations, inspiring motivation, idealized impact, and intellectual stimulation. The effectiveness of communication was assessed using a six-item scale. An independent variable in an experimental study is a variable that you change, manipulate, or control to measure what effect it has. It’s called independent since it is unaffected by the other variables in the study (Rezvani et al., 2018). Independent variables can include the following: Variables that help to explain an event or result.

3.5.2 Dependent variable

The scale of seven items borrowed from the project success scale (Elrehail et al., 2018). In experiments, a dependent variable is simply what changes when the independent variable is altered. It’s the item you’re concerned with and it relies on your independent variable. On the other hand, variables that changes due to other variable are the dependent variables.

3.6 Data Analysis Techniques

A descriptive research aims to accurately and systematically characterize a population, circumstance, or phenomena. It can only answer where, when, what, and how inquiries, but not why. A descriptive study might use a variety of research approaches to investigate one or more variables (Shafi et al., 2020). Unlike in empirical research, the variables are seen and measured rather than influenced or changed by the researcher.

3.6.1 Descriptive Analysis Techniques

The descriptive and statistical analysis of this research was done with SPSS. Other quantitative techniques are thought to be less detailed than descriptive analysis, giving a more comprehensive overview or phenomenon (Morrison-Smith & Ruiz, 2020). Any set of variables, or a single variable, can be used in descriptive research.

3.6.2 Inferential Analysis Techniques

The data analysis technique used starts with data collection, screening, and statistical analysis to analyze the respondents’ demographic attributes, reliability and correlation measurements, and lastly regression analysis. Inferential statistics is most commonly used to create estimates about a large population, as well as to evaluate and analyze the data using hypothesis testing procedures (Trakulsunti & Antony, 2018). Inferential statistics uses sample data as it is time-consuming and more cost effective than collecting data from the entire population.

3.7 Summary

The goal of this chapter was to look at a variety of strategies and techniques for responding to survey questions. It is evident from the description above that the study will employ a quantitative research design. The questionnaires will be used to collect data, which will then be evaluated using the SPSS System software. Transformational leadership affects both participants and social conditions. In its ideal form, it encourages valuable and positive development in followers, with the ultimate purpose of transforming followers into managers. Transformational leadership, in its simplest form, utilizes a number of strategies to improve follower’ performance, morale, and motivation. Connecting an employee’s self-worth to the corporate goals and common culture; empowering followers by leading by example; challenging followers to fully participate in projects; and understanding the weaknesses and strengths of employees so that the manager may assign assignments that enhance their performance are just a few examples to list.

 

Result and Discussion

4.1 Demographics

In analysis demographics, ethnicity, age, race, employment situation, income, family status, and other demographic data help to better understand an interviewer’s background factors (Taylor-Ghampson, 2020). By asking demographic profile of the respondents in questionnaires, you may collect demographic data on current and potential clients at scale, which can help you develop a market segmentation strategy to reach the relevant clients.

Demographics for this study was gathered from 100 project managers from different Malaysian companies. There were 100 responses, 85 percent of them were men and 15% of whom were women. The majority of respondents (58%) had a master’s degree, while 34% had a bachelor’s degree, 4% had a PhD, and the remaining 4% had professional degrees (the Project Management experts). 71 percent of respondents had less than 10 years of experience, while 29 percent more than ten years. The project managers worked for a variety of Malaysian companies. The participants in this study worked for both governmental and commercial enterprises.

Table 3: Demographic

Variables Details Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 90 85%
  Female 10 15%
Education Level Bachelors 45 34%
  Masters 75 58%
  PhD 5 4%
  Other 5 4%
Experience Less than ten years 93 71%
  Ten years or more 37 29%

 

Figure 1: Gender disparity

Figure 2: Level of education

 

4.2 Reliability

To asses reliability or consistency of test scores is measured by reliability. You can also consider of this as the ability to replicate tests or research results. Cronbach’s alpha values were utilized to determine the instrument’s internal consistency over time. Lower Cronbach’s alpha values indicate a lack of link (inter-relation) between items or a small number of items shown to survey respondents, but removing items having low Cronbach alpha values may improve the results. Cronbach alpha values are high when there is a lot of inter-relationship between elements. The item Cronbach alpha value should be more than 0.7, according to Al Khajeh (2018). The Cronbach alpha variables with Cronbach alpha values larger than 0.7 are shown in the table below. As a result, we can conclude that the tools utilized are reliable or trustworthy.

Table: Reliability Statistic

TFL                                                                                            .766         10
PS                                                                                              .819          8
EC                                                                                              .768          6

 

A large alpha value may mean that test items are closely linked. However, the quantity of test items has an impact. A large number of items leads to larger α, whereas less number of items leads to smaller α. If alpha is large, it’s possible that the questions are redundant (that is, they’re asking similar question). A small alpha number will imply that there aren’t enough questions on the testing. Include more relevant elements in the test to increase alpha. Poor correlations among test items might also result in low values, as can testing more than one underlying construct. The causes of lower and higher alpha scores are frequently misunderstood. As a reason, tests may be improperly dismissed or branded as untrustworthy. According to Abdullahi & Alias (2022), learning more about consistency reliability and validities will help you use Cronbach’s alpha correctly. Reliability should be examined throughout the process of data collection. When using a tool or a process to collect data, it’s vital that the results are precise, consistent, and reliable.

 

4.4 Normality Test

The mean values in table 4 represent the average of the each distribution. The standard deviation (a measurement of distribution) describes the distribution of data across the mean. Kurtosis readings indicate how flat something is. The data was further checked for normalcy using skewness and kurtosis. Skewness is used to determine if data is symmetrical or asymmetrical, according to (McIntosh, 2021). According to (Choudhary & Khan, 2021), a variables are considered normal if the skewness values are within ranges of -2 and +2. Kurtosis is a measure of how much data clusters in the tails of a dispersion (Ghasemy et al., 2022). According to (Nnaemeka, 2018), distribution is regarded normal when kurtosis values are within interval of -2 and +2. As a result, all skewness and kurtosis values are within acceptable limits. As a result, the data I used here is normal.

Table 4: Descriptive Statistics

 

Variables

 

Minimum Maximum Mean SD       Skewness       Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic           Std. Error Statistic Std. Error
TFL 2.60 5.00 4.2600 .44454 -.381    .212 .473        .422
PS 1.88 5.00 4.2096 .56488 -.739    .212 1.05        .422
EC 2.17 5.00 4.0603 .65527 -.797    .212 .534        .422

 

The normality test is a crucial step in determining the mean and standard deviation and statistical models for analysis of data for continuous variables. When the data has a normal distributions, normality test are employed to compare the groupings; else, non – parametric approaches are used. There are several methods for determining the normalcy of data, which includes numeric and visual approaches, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks.

4.5 Homoscedasticity Test

 

Data normalcy is also checked using homoscedasticity (Cook, 2020). Because homoscedasticity demonstrates a consistent link across IVs, data has to be homoscedastic. The scatter plot below illustrate a consistent relationship between independent variables and project management success as the dependent variable and efficient leadership.

 

 Figure 3: Scatter plot

 

Figure 4: Regression predicted value

One of the assumptions in regression analysis modeling is homoscedasticity, and data with this type performs well to the least squares. The linear regression model may be inaccurately specified if the variation of the errors along the regression line fluctuates greatly. Heterogeneous is the polar opposite of homoscedasticity, just as homogeneous is the polar opposite of homogeneous.  The variance of error term in a regression model is not consistent that is known as heteroscedasticity. To enhance the linear regression, the study had to experiment with different explanatory factors to see if they might produce a better match to the data. If some participants, for instance, knew the answers in advance, the linear regression model will have to include two multiple regression: time spent studying and whether the participant knew the answers beforehand. More variance in test results would be explained with these two parameters, and the variance of error might be homoscedastic, implying that model was well-defined.

 

4.6 Multicollinearity Test

When there are several regressions, correlations is examined. Since there is one independent variable in the study, we performed a multicollinearity test. So I used Pearson correlation to check for collinearity. Multicollinearity exists among independent variables if a value of correlation is more than 0.8, according to (GEBRETSADIK, 2020). In linear regression, multicollinearity makes it hard to understand the impact of the each independent variable (Lufungula & Borromeo, 2019).

All of the correlation values in Table 5 are less than 0.8. As a result, there is no concern with collinearity. If independent variables in a linear regression are correlated, this is known as multicollinearity. Because independent variables must be independent, this association is problematic. When fitting this model and understanding the results, a higher level of correlation between the variables can pose issues. You can modify the value from one independent variable but not the others, according to the concept. Correlation between two independent variables means that change in one are related to changes in the other. When the correlation between two parameters is high, it’s much more difficult to change one without changing the other. Because the independent variables generally move in lockstep, the model finds it difficult to assess the correlation amongst each independent variable and the dependent variables independently.

4.7 Correlation

The correlation values among variables are reported in the table below. The purpose of correlation was to determine the size and degree of association between two variables. Correlation is an important and necessary measure for examining the relation between at least two variables, and it is represented by a number called the coefficient of correlation (Matahela & Van, 2021). The ranges of coefficient of correlation is -1 to +1, according to (Lee & Abdullah, 2022). According to (Prateeppornnarong, 2021), a correlation coefficient close to +1 indicates a strong linear correlation among two parameters (the variables move in similar direction). When the coefficient of correlation (r) value is close to zero, the relationship is weak, and when the coefficient of correlation (r) value is close to -1, there is a significant negative linear association (the variables move in the opposite way).

The variables of this study had a moderate correlation. The relationship between the dependent and independent variables is moderate and substantial. All of the correlations were determined to be statistically relevant (p0.01) and to be moving in the right direction. There was a significant relationship between project success and transformational leadership (r=0.518, p.01), project success and effective communication (r=0.566, p.01), and effective communication and transformational leadership (r=.538, p.0.01).

Table 5: Correlation, Mean, SD

Variables Mean SD TFL PS EC
TFL 4.2600 .44454 1    
PS 4.2096 .56488 .447** 1  
EC 4.0603 .65527 .542** .556** 1

**. Correlation is Significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed).

We can both measure and anticipate this link. For instance, if we understand how much we intend to spend on project planning, we may utilize correlation to properly estimate how many clients will join the project. This is due to the fact which we can use a particular number to quantify the connection within defined bounds.

4.8 Hypothesis Testing

 

Regression analysis method is used to assess whether there is a positive or negative relationship between two elements, as well as to estimate the value of a dependent variable using the independent variables values (Abdulrasheed & Aminu, 2021). We utilized basic linear regression model to test H1, H2, and H3. Linear model has assumption; if all of the regression assumptions are met, data is subjected to regression analysis. Homogeneity test, normality test, multicollinearity test, and homoscedasticity are all regression assumptions. I tested the data for homoscedasticity, normality test, and multicollinearity in the case study. There was no normalcy and a collinearity problem was discovered. As a result, I performed regression analysis on the data.

Simple and multiple linear regression are types of regression analysis models. When only one independent variable is utilized to estimate a dependent variable, it is called liner regression model; when many independent variables are used in estimating a dependent variable, it is called multiple regression model (Khalikov et al., 2021). The results are also shown in the table.

Table 6: Hypothesis

HYP IV DV R2 B T F Sig Alt. Hyp
H1 TFL EC .294 .542 7.295 53.220 .000 Accepted
H2 EC PS .310 .556 7.575 57.387 .000 Accepted
H3 TFL PS .200 .447 5.565 31.949 .000 Accepted

 

H1:

In order to examine the impact of transformational leadership on communicating effectively, regression analysis test has been performed. Beta value (B) is 0.542 that suggests that unit change in TFL creates 0.542 changes in EC. Hence, it reveals that TFL positively influence EC. Sig value 0.000 which suggests that association is important and strong. Similarly, R – squared value .294 that is substantial and reveals 29.4 percent variation under this model. F value indicates that fitness of model, in this example F value is 53.220 that is good. Value of t is larger than 1.96. That is also significant. So, H1 is approved.

H2:

The linear regression test was performed to determine the impact of effective communications on project success. The beta value (B) is 0.556, which suggests that a change in EC induces a change in PS of 0.556 units. As a result, EC has a favorable impact on PS. Sig value 0.000 indicates a considerable and strong association. In this model, the R square value is.310, which is noteworthy and shows a 31 percent variation. The F value indicates the model’s fitness; in this case, the F value is 57.387 that is good. The value of t also is important. As a result, H2 is acceptable.

 

H3:

The linear regression test was performed to determine the relationship between transformational leadership and project success. The beta value (B) is 0.447, which suggests that a change in TFL produces a change in PS of 0.447. As a result, TFL has a beneficial effect on PS. The association between transformative leadership and project management success is considerable and robust, with a Sig value of 0.000. Similarly, the R square value of.200 is noteworthy and demonstrates a 20 percent variation in this case. The F value indicates the model’s fitness; in this case, the F value is 31.949 that is good. The t value of 5.565 is also notable. As a result, H3 gets accepted.

Table 7: Mediation Analysis (H4)

TL       EC       PS

  Effect SE T p LLCI ULCI
Total Effect .568 .101 5.65 .000 .3691 .7667
Direct Effect .262 .109 2.399 .018 .0458 .4774
Indirect Effect .306 .089     .1386 .4789
  Effect SE Z p    
Normal theory test for indirect effect .306 .0729 4.2 .000    

The Model 4 process was used to investigate the relationship between transformative leadership and project management success. The results are displayed in the table; the direct impact value is 0.266, and the indirect impact value is 0.306, increasing the total effect. TFL’s total effect on PS is 0.572 as a result of good communication mediating, that is higher than individual influence. All of the effects are favorable and significant (indirect, direct, and overall). The Sobel test was also performed to confirm the moderating role of good communication, and it confirmed the role of communicating effectively as expected because the value of z is 4.09, which is more than 2, and the p-value (p=0.000) also is less than 0.05. As a result, H4 is accepted.

The approach of drawing inferences on a population dependent on data gathered from a sample to the population is referred as statistical inference. Hypothesis testing is the process for determining how effectively observed findings in a population sample may be extended to the whole population from which the sample was obtained, and it serves as the foundation for making population-related decisions. The researcher formulates a hypothesis, reviews data from a representative sample, and determines if the findings support the idea.

4.9 Summary of Results

Table 8: Results Summary

Hypothesis No. Statement Result
H1 There is relationship between effective communication and transformational leadership. Accepted
H2 There is relationship between project success and effective communication. Accepted
H3 There is indirect impact of transformational leadership on project success. Accepted
H4 Transformational leadership have an indirect impact on project success through effective communication. Accepted

 

4.10 Discussion

The goal of this study was to look into the impact of transformational leadership and project success by using role effective communication as a medium. To investigate this link, we gathered information from 130 Malaysian project managers. The first three hypotheses were tested using simple linear regression (H1, H2, and H3). I looked at the direct connection here. The findings revealed that the project manager’s transformational leadership and project management success are linked. (Morelock & Narita, 2021) found similar results, stating that all four aspects of transformative leadership are significantly associated to project performance. As a result, the style of leadership of the project leader is crucial to the successful project. Furthermore, project managers that lead with a transformative mindset can motivate and encourage their teams. Group members’ critical and innovative thinking are also encouraged by transformative leadership.

Moreover, we discovered that efficient communication is positively connected to project management success (B=0.552), implying that it is a great indicator of project success. Our findings are consistent with those of other studies (Cha & Yap, 2020). In addition, (Lee, 2021) found a connection between project management success and effective communication. Similarly, (Schiavo-Campo, 2018) discovered that communication is substantially linked to project success. Project leaders can keep their key stakeholders informed about the project by using efficient communication (externally and internally communication). Project failure can be avoided via effective communication between team members and key stakeholders. A substantial and favorable association between transformative leadership and effective communicating was also found (B=0.538). This finding backs up the claims made by (Mestewat, 2020) Communication studies is one of the studies which cannot be separated from studies of organizational leadership. Further indicated, the topic of communication is frequently related with leadership, and (Howieson, 2019) noted that leadership is entirely founded on communications.

Most significantly, the research demonstrated that good communication is a mediator between transformative leadership and project management success. This is the only study that I’m aware of that looks at effective communication as a mediation between transformative leadership and project management success. As a result, the study has contributed and attempted to answer the question of how transformational leadership contributes to project success. Many scholars have stated that understanding the underlying process by which the transformational leadership promotes project performance is important. (Taylor, 2020) argued that the hidden processes via which TFL has its influence on project success have not been well addressed in field of project management. As a result of our results, transformative project managers are able to effectively communicate effectively to their subordinate in a project setting, which leads to project success.

In any formal situation, such as meetings, teams, and organizations, communications has always been critical. If there is a poor communication, there is a risk of misunderstanding between teammates or associates (Powell, 2020). It could result in a business failure. As a result of the report’s findings, it’s now known that project managers who implement transformational leadership are successful communicators. Transformative leaders provide timely and accurate information to their followers and keep them informed about new projects and initiatives. It gives group members confidence, and makes them approach the project manager without fear to address any issues they may have (Pettinger, 2019). The importance of two-way communication is critical to success. Effective communication refers to the process of sharing thoughts, ideas, and information in such a way that the goal is met, and group members properly comprehend the project’s mission and objective. It contributes to project success in the end.

The direct effect’s beta value is (0.266), and this is positively significant, while the indirect effect’s beta value is (0.306), which also is significant and positive. As a result, we may conclude that good communication plays a role in bridging the gap between transformative leadership and project management success. Other variables also influence the transformative and project success link, according to partial mediation. This relationship requires further examination (Lusted, 2019). More study into the components that influence this link is being done, and the underlying cause is becoming easier to understand. Organizations supply essential training to the project leaders once they thoroughly comprehend this relationship.

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Project-based businesses are always interested in learning about the aspects that drive success of the project. The study demonstrated that, in the context of construction projects, project leaders with transformational leadership styles improved project success both in direct and indirect ways. As a result, the hypothesis that both effective communication and transformational leadership are major determinants of project success was supported by this study. Furthermore, we established that excellent communication is critical to project performance and bridged the gap linking transformational leadership style and project management success.

As a result, project-oriented corporations must encourage project leaders to use transformational leadership styles. Leadership training programs can help organizations build transformational leadership among project leaders. Managers that lead with a transformational leadership style effectively communicate their views, ideas, knowledge, and organizational vision to the group members (Ben-Nun, 2019). As a result, businesses must encourage project leaders to adopt a transformational leadership style so as to ensure project or other venture success.

Leadership is characterized as improving humans and technologies, raising performance standards, ensuring a sufficient volume of deliveries, and instilling pride in human effort. Leaders must be persuasive, possess a sense of empowerment, be persistent, and participate in consistent personnel management. Project managers must be able to apply a variety of approaches while drawing on sociopolitical and interpersonal abilities (communicating, bargaining, team collaboration, and generating ownership) in order to be effective (Frankenberg, 2019). To be very effective, leaders must be imaginative, show respect toward others, be kind, responsive, and go above and beyond their capabilities.

Integrity, incredible persistence, confidence, hard effort, responsiveness, a high level of energy, and humility are all qualities that project leaders should possess (Serrano & Eckhardt, 2022). The many leadership qualities that are necessary within the construction environment, as shown in the findings, suggest that the more than half of the replies were favorable. The goal of this study was to find out what styles of leadership are needed within a project team in order to achieve project success. According to the findings, the customer support projects team demonstrates all of the aforementioned leadership styles with a high rating of above 50%. These are the basic factors that must be present in order to attract project clients.

Despite the fact that the project manager may be understaffed, participants said that 52 percent of projects were completed successfully, indicating that despite a shortage of resources, the project team has adequate resources and skills. A cross the various variables, it is clear that the position in within organization vs the orientation to push change, as well as possessing amazing tenacity, have a vitally significant value. The importance of leadership styles in an organization’s road to success has been discovered. The literature review stressed the impact of leadership styles in a learning organization and suggested critical characteristics for effective management.

5.2 Theoretical Implications

The research adds to the project management literature by combining leadership theories and an effective communication approach. The findings of the research suggest that good communication plays a role in the relationship between transformative leadership and project management success. It enables us to see how project success and transformational leadership are both important determinants of project success.

The study findings revealed a substantial link between project managers’ transformational leadership style, project success, and effective communication. According to the findings, transformational leadership is substantially associated with project success. This research looked into how a project manager’s transformative leadership style might help a project succeed. Additionally, good communication served as a bridge between transformative leadership and project management success. Good communication somewhat mediated in our model. It implies that in the correlation between transformative leadership and project management success, there are still many elements at play. As a result, future researchers are recommended to investigate these pathways. Theoretically, this research found a connection between DV, mediator variable, and the IV.

Leadership is critical in both small businesses and all industrial operations. Management and leadership are two very distinct business model (Thomas, 2021). Providing a clear vision, expressing that vision to others, and resolving disputes between various employees accountable for carrying out the organization’s vision are all frequent definitions of leadership (Rodiyah et al., 2020). Management is the process of organizing and coordinating a company’s diverse economic resources. Leadership could have a substantial impact on the overall performance of an organization and the performance of individual projects.

The assumption that project managers have an impact on project performance and satisfaction is so widespread that little evidence and opinion exists on the subject. Over decades ago, (Rahmatullah et al., 2021) undertook in-depth interviews with contracting firm leaders and found that businesses needed more leadership than before to survive and thrive. Leadership has a significant impact on several industrial ventures. The decision to alter leadership is hit or miss in some circumstances, but in the high-opportunity cases, efficient leadership can improve the project team’s performance. In order to make a substantial effect, how these improvements are perceived is also essential (Kabir, 2020). In some businesses, it’s not just about whoever the new manager is or how well-known they are, but also about their background. In industries like computer technology and aircraft, it’s important for the new leader to have a track record of success (Xaba, 2020). Because practically all the CEOs in such companies are from industry, their understanding of it is critical.

Teams and organizations are both complex social structures with decorative human interactions. Simply put, the need to comprehend events may be traced back to the leader’s location or name. The employees and management regard their achievements as remarkable. The opinion of the preceding leader is used to gauge future successions. Most organizations and projects’ results are attributed to great leaders if we embrace the logic of theory of attribution in a favorable light (Goel & Nelson, 2022). As a result of the preceding debates, it is found that managers play a critical role in the effective completion of a firm’s projects. We can form the following research hypotheses: H1: Project leadership and success are significantly and positively related.

5.3 Practical Implications

The study’s primary findings, which looked at the indirect and direct impacts of transformative leadership on the success of a project, had clear practical consequences for project leaders. Managers that use a transformational leadership have a significant impact on project success. Therefore, project-based businesses should encourage project managers to adopt a transformational style. Furthermore, firms that encourage project managers to use transformational leadership styles communicate successfully (Diwan, 2019). They are excellent at communicating the organization’s vision to its followers.

Effective communication appears to be a substantial determinant of project success, according to this study. Our findings are congruent with those of other researchers (Khalikov et al., 2021). As a result, firms that encourage project managers to use transformational leadership styles are also successful communicators. Project-based enterprises can increase their performance by offering project managers with transformational leadership training. Projects are the foundation of the development and construction sectors. Adopting and encouraging transformational leadership style among construction and building company leaders will assist managers in meeting goals of the project (Rogelberg, 2018). Finally, this research encourages practitioners to promote transformational leadership and provide training to project leaders in order to ensure project success. To achieve project success, we highly advise project managers working in various businesses to embrace a transformational leadership.

5.4 Limitations and Recommendations

The goal of the research study was to examine the impact of effective communication in bridging the gap between transformative leadership and project management success. The impact of transformative leadership on success of the project was examined using all four dimensions in this study. Firstly, data was only collected once (cross-sectional design of the research), which limited the research study’s assumptions. Longitudinal research can therefore be used to assess the effects of transformational leadership style on success of the project. Longitudinal research reduces prejudice. As a result, academics advocate longitudinal investigations (Pratiwi & Dewi, 2021). Secondly, convenience sampling was used to acquire the data for this investigation. The sampling method has a bias problem. As a result, future researchers can collect data using a variety of sampling approaches. The suggested framework would benefit from a probability sampling method. Thirdly, the study’s representative sample is small. The approach works well with a big sample set. A larger sample size will provide a more accurate picture of transformational leadership. As a result, future researchers should strongly consider it.

Finally, this research must be completed within a certain amount of time. I also have time and financial constraints as a student. As a result, expanding this research to additional regions proved impossible. The current study has the following drawbacks. First, unlike most existing literature, the current study looked into the conception of TL and IN in in a construction firm in a growing nation.  As a result, additional exploratory approach on industrial organizations in various industries and contexts is advised. Secondly, this study highlights and limits the evaluation of TL type as a facilitator of IN and OP, despite the fact that narrowing the scope of the research offers a better understanding of the phenomenon under research. According to this category, laissez-faire and transactional leadership are two other types of leadership that are present within it (Abdullahi & Alias, 2022). Future studies could look into other styles of leadership in various businesses. Thirdly, because the current study used non-financial metrics, common bias was likely; therefore, replicating the findings with more financial metrics will increase our confidence in our findings. Finally, additional study can be done with various sorts of samples and methodologies in various circumstances in order to achieve generalization.

5.5 Future Research

This study shows that effective communications plays a significant and positive role in project success when transformational leadership is the independent variable. As a result, future scholars can examine the impact of additional independent variables such as laissez-faire and transactional leadership style on project success. In addition, various mediating factors such as teamwork and project manager leadership skills can be substituted for the independent variable mediators. This research was carried out in Malaysia’s construction industry. As a result, this concept could be tried in other areas in the future, such as governmental, commercial, IT, and agriculture.

Finally, the model could be utilized to compare transformational leadership in rural and urban settings. To compare and contrast the leadership styles of urban and rural leaders. The rate of failure of construction projects is considerably higher in rural than in urban areas. As a result, we must investigate independently what the primary causes of project failures are in both rural and urban settings (McIntosh, 2021). It will help understand transformational leadership style better.

Leaders in construction industries should have vision, open new avenues, believe in innovation, and recognize the needs and wishes of their followers, as they can invest more efforts beyond their capability to assist leaders in achieving the organization’s goals and expectations (Choudhary & Khan, 2021). Furthermore, the current study provided a deeper knowledge of how leaders might use IN and TL to support performance in Malaysian construction organizations. Finally, the findings of this research article can help leaders and policymakers better understand the relationships between transformative leadership, innovations, and project success. As a result, practitioners may create effective policies for implementing innovation and transformational leadership to improve organizational performance.

The ultimate goal of effective transformational leadership and success of the project is unquestionably a long journey filled with challenges and issues, but also with fantastic opportunities and unforgettable experiences. Passion, determination, wisdom, bravery, tolerance, and dedication are required to become an effective project management leader (Ghasemy et al., 2022). The management process involves leaders with a wide range of talents to deal with the organization’s demanding requirements, such as controlling humans, managing resources, scheduling timeframe, negotiating contracts, and etc. Effective leadership skills are acquired through time and experience, rather than being inherited (Nnaemeka, 2018). In the realm of construction projects, trial and error is used to determine leadership effectiveness.

Different styles of leadership have varying degrees of project effectiveness, but it all relies on the leader’s attributes, the setting, the workplace culture, and, most vital, the situation in hand (Mandal, 2018). Every style of leadership is as effective as the other; it is comparable to any instrument or weapon. The style of leadership thrives and achieves a greater level of efficacy with in hands and level of skill of beholder. In comparison to other management theories, project management is still emerging, and its theories are all still relatively new. The goal of this study is to give relevant empirical data, as well as a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, to back up existing project management techniques.

This research reveals the vital aspects which are vitally required to successfully execute challenging projects for today’s project managers, project specialists, and other project professionals in the sector. Soft skills are more crucial at the higher levels of project management, whereas technical abilities are less relevant. The use of the proposed important soft skills which were highlighted in the hypotheses is crucial to the shift from ordinary leaders to remarkably effective leaders. The recommended skills for each hypothesis are the result of research and are backed by a number of academies. These key aspects are not a guaranteed success; instead, they are a recommendation that, when correctly implemented, can result in significant positive outcomes. One crucial factor to remember is that a project’s success is solely dependent on the project manager’s competence. Because the project manager’s actions and behaviors have an equal and opposite impact on the project, project leaders must be knowledgeable, competent, and always learning and growing.

To summarize, the major conclusion would be that project leadership styles, behaviors, and abilities should become a natural practice in all activities performed by project leaders; therefore, considerable gains in performances and high productivity levels in construction projects would result (Lufungula & Borromeo, 2019). In the same vein, organizations can greatly benefit from assisting project managers in their development as leaders. Finally, any company that works on a large number of projects should encourage and invest in project management training, and also strive to develop a leadership culture; this will allow project managers to grow and improve project abilities beyond their normal competencies. By offering a professional and personal development environment, the organization will cultivate the foundations for very committed and effective project leaders. Finally, project managers will be more effective in terms of fulfilling milestones, sticking to financial budgets, and finishing projects in a timely manner, and will therefore become valuable assets to the company.

 

Questionnaire

Dear participants,

I am now working on a research project named “the effect of transformational leadership style on project success through effective communication.”

I’d like you to complete the questionnaire. Everything you mention in the form will be kept totally private and no personal or organization identity will be revealed. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation for your collaboration.

Section A: Kindly respond to all questions

1. Are you male or female? Male

Female

2. Your highest education level Bachelor

Maters

PHD

Others

3. Years of experience as a project manager More than ten years

Less than ten years

 

Section B: 1-strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3- neither disagree or agree, 4- agree, 5- strongly agree

Transformational leadership

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
1 Group members have full trust in me          
2 I enable group members to reason about old challenges in the modern way          
3 I offer individual attention towards team members who appear neglected          
4 I let the group to know that I am fully confident the project objectives will be realized          
5 I offer my team members new techniques of looking at challenging issues          
6 I help every team member to develop their strength          
7 I create a favorable working environment for my team          
8 I assist the members of the team to find clear meaning in their job          
9 I get members of the team to rethink opinions that they have not asked before          
10 I am always attentive towards unique issues of every member of the team          

 

Project success

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
1 The projects were finalized on time          
2 The projects were finalized as per the allocated budget          
3 Project members were all satisfied with the procedure of project implementation          
4 The project results were applied by the intended users          
5 The project created the visible positive results on the users          
6 The specifications of the project were met in good time          
7 The users were all satisfied with the project outcomes          
8 Our principal project donors were all satisfied by the results of the implemented project          

 

Effective communication

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
1  I am always comfortable interacting to my leader concerning my performance          
2 Most communication existing between the management and employees with my company are two way          
3 My organization encourages diverse opinions          
4 The objective of communication within my company is to assist the management to be responsible for challenges of other workers.          
5 I am normally informed about the major modifications in policies that affect my work before they are initiated.          
6 I am always comfortable communicating with my leader when something is not well          

 

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1.1 Overview

This introduction chapter covers the background of the study, problem statement, research objectives, research questions, and study significance, organization of study and definitions of terms.

 

1.2 Background of the study

Educational management has attracted international interest in academics during the last few decades. In the realm of school administration, a new concept has emerged: education management. Despite the fact that educational management is becoming the most popular educational paradigms in the late twenty-first century, there is still a disagreement on education management, as philosophies theoretically improve schools, but in diverse ways (Liu & Hallinger 2018). Although there is no clear definition of educational management, it is generally understood to be a method of guiding others through principles, goals, and behaviors. “Management  is autonomous of positional power and tends to focus more on the inspiring and motivating individuals who can effect organizational performance through their talents and abilities,” it was also recommended (Shengnan & Hallinger 2021). Educational management, on the other hand, is concerned with the upkeep and enforcement of school policy. Although there is no one definition, it refers broadly to a school-based strategy that stresses efficiency.

In previous decades, the significance of management theories has fueled the growth of educational management theories and practices. In industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and the United States, most theoretical frameworks and implementation initiatives have arisen. As a result of this regional mismatch, the Western paradigm quickly arose, since many EL theories were created in developed nations (Hallinger et al. 2019). As a result, most management theories were culturally, socially, and politically inapplicable in non-Western countries like China. A good example is that, in comparison to western principals, Chinese principals have less autonomy because they are nominated by the government, which means they must follow the government’s orders (Chen & Guo 2020). In such circumstances, EM frameworks designed in Western countries might not entirely fit to China’s local conditions.

Along with these challenges, the EM paradigm would not operate in non-Western societies, particularly in China’s complex context. (Zheng et al. 2019) carried out a study comparing principals’ EM practices in China and Western nations. The study’s findings reveal that EM in China has demonstrated no preconceptions of EM practices based on culture and contextual conditions, but that EM practices in Western countries are similar. Chinese principals frequently deal with Western EM concepts and local situations to enforce EM practices, implying that Chinese principals do not adhere to the EM framework that was created specifically for Western nations (Huang et al. 2020). Nonetheless, the rise of educational studies in emerging nations, particularly China, has helped to close the research gap. Educational management swiftly became one of China’s most researched issues, with studies focusing primarily on post-secondary education schools.

Since, academic research has concentrated on the cultural and societal influences on Chinese educational management. The structure of schools and the educational system have been extensively researched as scholars look for ways to enhance these areas (Meyer et al. 2022). In addition, the Education ministry announced two key national education policies, both of which provided possibilities for management practices in the classroom. School principals were encouraged to exercise educational management by the NCR (New Curriculum Reform) of 2001 and the PSPCE (Professional Standards for Principals in Compulsory Education Schools) of 2013. These policies paved the way for more research on educational management. Most school principals have used some form of instructional management in their schools as a result of such governmental backing, with varying success (Karacabey et al. 2022).

Educational management is utilized less frequently in China than educational administration. Despite the fact that educational management was on the local and international agenda when the policies were implemented, most Chinese principals lacked training in this idea and were unable to exercise educational management in their schools (Binti et al. 2020). Other principals combine educational management together with education management concepts since their schools will not get the resources for fully implementation of education management.

In Chinese schools, the status quo of educational management and management is susceptible to challenge because situations vary from school to school. The unique school structure is another key cause for the usage of EM in school management. The government enforced severe rules and restrictions on school structures, limiting the principal’s autonomy in schools (Ismail et al. 2018). Aside from the school principal, to make sure that students, teachers, and the administration follow the party’s moral code, the school must have a party secretariat and Communist party groups within the school. Duty overlaps and power disputes between the party secretaries and the principal usually have negative implications in schools, such as inefficiency and management concerns. In such circumstances, EM is commonly used to balance power between the principal and the party secretariat, and the teachers, who faithfully adhere to the rules (Kwan 2020). In such situations, the number of rooms in which to use EL is limited, therefore EM is commonly recommended. Because most research focus on higher education, the unsolvable challenge calls into question the status quo of EM practices in Chinese schools, particularly in primary schools. Aside from the complex education system for using EM, there are also research gaps in Chinese educational management.

China has a long history of placing a high value on education. There is a lot of societal and family pressure on students to excel academically. Throughout history, this has supported educational reform on a variety of levels. While the rest of the country has advanced in education, Henan has been granted special authority to test reforms ahead of the rest of the country (Purwanto et al. 2021). Given the country’s strong ranking in the PISA 2009 exam, all eyes are on how all of these reforms were implemented. Henan, a Chinese city, was the first to attain 100% enrollment in elementary and junior high school. It’s one of the first to attain nearly universal secondary school enrollment. It’s also worth noting that any students in Henan who wish to pursue higher education can do so. Pupils of migrant workers from rural parts of the country were included in universal education, accounting for 22% of school children in the metropolis (Hardwick-Franco 2019). (With a population of about 20 million people, that translates to roughly four million migrant schoolchildren.) These youngsters may be considered as a concern in other regions of China. Henan, on the other hand, is a city driven by migrants, which it has welcomed and absorbed into its curriculum.

China’s system of education has struggled to transition away from an exam-driven system that forces students to memorize facts in order to pass tests. Henan began a reform initiative in 1985, creating exams that tested the applicability of real world experience. Exams in the city no longer include multiple choice questions (Postholm 2018). Exams continue to exist notwithstanding the revisions. To make sure that they pass, an estimated 85% of pupils attend cram schools at night and on weekends. This is on top of nightly assignments and extracurricular, making a Chinese student’s life extremely stressful. The Chinese central government is informed of this issue, and its new reform initiatives for 2020 ask for a decrease in student workload. Henan is also aiming to improve students’ educational experiences so that they learn how to learn rather than simply memorize facts. The process revolves around an updated curriculum (Nasra & Arar 2019). This is where our research into education management begins. The perspectives of Chinese primary school principals and teachers on school management—a case study of Henan.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The majority of present research in educational management is focused on theoretical frameworks. Few studies have looked at the outcomes of educational management application. Most notably, there is a dearth of study on the impacts of educational management on school effectiveness and principal behavior. Furthermore, there is little scholarly interest in investigating primary school management behaviors. Only a few published publications have highlighted the importance of primary school principals and teachers in educational management. As a result, this study’s goal is to look into educational management techniques in Chinese primary schools in Henan, China, in order to address a knowledge pool.

1.3 Objectives of the research

  1. To examine the perspectives of primary school principals and teachers school management in Henan, China.
  2. To describe how the principals manage the schools in Henan, China, in light of current educational regulations.
  • To examine the current state of contemporary school management style in Henan, China.

 

1.4 Research questions

Q1: How do the principals and teachers view education management of schools in Henan, China?

Q2: How can the principal manage the schools in light of current education regulations in Henan, China?

Q3: What is the current state of contemporary school managerial style in Henan, China?

1.5 Significance of the study

In summary, this research will concentrate on Henan, China, and will look into the perspectives and practices of EM in the classroom. This research will also look into how principal and instructors used EM in the classroom, as well as what the teachers think about those EM practices. It is also vital to understand how well the principal approaches school administration in terms of EM in order to interpret their perspectives and thinking. Because principals and institutions are governed by the government, existing education regulations will be extensively evaluated to investigate the rationale for choosing such an approach. These logics will be followed in this investigation, and the results will be interpreted accordingly.

This is a case study that took place in Henan, China. The research study’s main objective is to answer the following question: In Henan, China, how do primary school teachers and principals regard educational management? China’s schools are frequently praised in the Western for their PISA results, strong discipline, and work ethic. Chinese students, on the other hand, have 12-hour days of school, 40 student classes, and extensive hours of after-school teaching. The Chinese educational system has been chastised for its reliance on “rote style” learning, a singular focus on exam preparedness, unquestioning and passive student involvement, and a limited curriculum. Although many agree that China’s system creates the “greatest test-takers in the world,” they also believe that it fosters a “spirit of obedience” and “suppresses individualism,” resulting in impoverished social and educational outcomes. Others argue that China’s high-stakes testing environment has resulted in corruption, the loss of creative potential, and an awful student suicide rate.

 

1.6 Definition of terms

Educational Management – Educational management is the study of how educational institutions operate on a day-to-day basis (Hallinger 2018). It’s also a way of organizing, planning, and coordinating activities in a school in order to fulfill the school’s objectives by maximizing the use of people and material resources.

School Management – School administration is the act of leading a school toward success by optimizing use of physical and human resources, ideas, and theories that aid in the attainment of all of the school’s objectives, as well as the proper coordination and modifications of all of them (Hallinger 2018).

Principal – All of school’s personnel, including teachers, are overseen by a principal, maintenance personnel, administration staffers, and anyone else (Petko et al. 2018). Given the responsibilities that principals face, there may be a few skills and traits that are essential to be a effective school principal

Teacher – A teacher is a person who helps students develop knowledge, competency, or virtue. Informally, anyone can take the role of instructor. For example, while instructing someone on how to complete a task. In certain countries, rather than being educated in a formal setting that is a school, small children of school age could be taught in a more informal setting like inside the family, or through homeschooling (Donglong et al. 2020). Other careers may necessitate a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, hired experienced teachers are in responsibility of pupils’ formal education. Persons whose major work purpose is to teach others in a formal education context, including a school or other institution of first-level formal training or education, are the focus of this research.

 

1.7 The organization of the study

This research will begin with a survey of the literature on educational management in Henan, China. Educational management theories, present primary school principal practices, and the current situation of educational school management will all be examined in this literature study. The methodology section of this study will go into the research and data collection instruments used. The study’s central question will be answered in the analytical section that follows. Finally, the research and significance of this research will be summarized in a conclusion.

 

2.1 Overview

The purpose of this section is to provide background information on Chinese educational management. This part will first go over educational management. Following that, it will discuss more on the collegial education management model. It is critical to comprehend how EM functions in traditional situations in order to completely comprehend how EM has evolved in China. The following part will link existing education reforms to EM and demonstrate how government policies have influenced EM development in China. Lastly, this chapter will look at the current state of Education Management in Chinese education and demonstrate how EM ideas are frequently altered to match the local situation. The research questions at the end of this chapter will tackle the existing studies gaps as well as the study’s objective.

 

2.1 What is Educational Management (EM)?

EM was established in the America States in the mid-nineteenth century and has quickly expanded over the world in recent decades. EM, which combines earlier ideas and concepts from administration, bureaucracies, and management, has been formally acknowledged by academics but has eluded a single concrete description due to its complexity. EM was originally acknowledged as educational management in the US States during its early phases of growth. European states and the rest of the globe embraced the term “management” (Dicke et al. 2020). While most researchers agreed that educational management had similar meanings and contexts (Karlberg & Bezzina 2020), many went into detail about the differences. Bal-Taştan et al. (2018) define EM as “regular maintenance of current operations” and educational administration as “lower order duties.” According to Shaturaev (2021), the clearest description of EM is given by him (Smetackova et al. 2019). EM, according to (Zhou et al. 2019), is all about preserving education program: ‘Managing involves keeping current organizational arrangements efficiently and effectively.’ While good management often demonstrates management qualities, the overall goal is to maintain rather than change.’ (Bear et al. 2018), (Donglong et al. 2020) elaborated on the necessity of maintenance, based on (Hallinger 2018)’s definition, because EM handles the implementations or technical concerns.

(Petko et al. 2018) suggested that EM is “an executive mechanism for implementing out agreed policies,” in contrary to these authors. (Hardwick-Franco 2019) and (Postholm 2018) differed in their definitions of EM since (Nasra & Arar 2019) considered that EM included included internal policy formulations and organizational reform. Purwanto et al. (2021) went on to say that properly employing organizational resources will improve the efficiency of the organization and result in better outcomes. However, (Kwan 2020) stated that this focus on organizational efficiency is inextricably linked to managerialism, which is at odds with EM’s initial goal. While effectiveness is vital in school administration, he argues in his book Theories of EM (Ismail et al. 2018) that Educational Management should focus on instructional goals rather than solely organizational efficiency. Other authors have expressed a similar viewpoint and expanded on this argument, claiming that the rise of a perverse form of neoliberalism in the twenty-first century, in which questionable performance measures and profit margins adjudicate the relative importance of an education system (Binti et al. 2020) contends, based impact not only from bureaucratic system and management, but also from other perspectives including economics and social psychology. This has made it much more difficult to define EM in today’s society, as the term has become increasingly complex.

With the emergence of new political and social ideologies, Karacabey et al. (2022) broadened his views on Educational Management’s ideal focus—educational intents and goals. EM should pursue proper goals for education sector instead of blindly pursuing diverse education aims, he thinks, whether education goals are established through internal meetings or enforced from outside players. EM is “involved with the effective running of school systems” at its core (Meyer et al. 2022). Modern EM also relies on educational goals and targets that provide the institution with paths and disciplines (Huang et al. 2020). Generally, EM has evolved into a complex perspective that is in conversation with a variety of other viewpoints, such as EL, and it is continually evolving and interacting with more facets of modern life.

 

2.1.2 How is Educational Management Practiced?

 

In the article The Managerial Imperative and the Practice of School management, Zheng et al. (2019) provided a precise definition of educational management. (Chen & Guo 2020) argues that educational management is a way of ‘impacting others’ behaviors in order to achieve desired outcomes. Leaders are those who influence others’ goals, motivations, and actions. They frequently make changes to achieve existing and new objectives. (Hallinger et al. 2019) extended to the definition of EM by adding extra layers. According to this theory, effective EM requires visions, resources, and motivation, as well as standardizing methods and monitoring operations. EL is a series of functions or responsibilities performed by school leaders instead of “something completed by someone from a formal authority” under this definition.

Scholars have concluded that work on EM theory development has halted since the late 1970s (Shengnan & Hallinger 2021). There has been minimal cumulative buildup of knowledge in this area [of educational management], according to (Liu & Hallinger 2018), the authors of Educational Administration article. The lack of conceptual development of EM is also a source of concern for Edwin Bridges. ‘There is no strong evidence to imply that those slaving in the intellectual fields since 1967 have resolved a major theoretical question or practical difficulty relating to school administrators,’ he asserts. Moreover, (Liu et al. 2020), who studied educational management in schools and classrooms, claims that there aren’t enough studies in EM theory on classroom school structure. (Unger & Meiran 2020) also recommends looking into the school itself than Educational Management theories; this proposal was the catalyst for the inclusion of EM in the national educational agenda.

As a result, in the 1980s, EM theory and practice exploded in popularity. A recent study on management and school effectiveness (Ariffin et al. 2018) also pointed to the importance of EM development in education. Edmonds discovered that excellent schools had six major qualities: effective administrative management, high expectations for all students, an amazing school environment, and a focus on student teaching, additional resource support, and student progress tracking. More research into EM was begun after it was acknowledged as a vital tool for school effectiveness in the 1980s.

In addition, Malik (2018) emphasized the relevance of values and purposes in EM. Bush (2018) argued that sustaining educational principles and intents for EM practices among school principals could likely boost the possibility for school effectiveness in his paper on the establishment of National Professionals Qualifications for Headship (NPQH) in the UK. In Twelve schools, (Baharuldin et al. 2019) questioned over 200 principals, employees, and stakeholders regarding EM. They came to the conclusion that management is all about the growth of people who are active in the education system, including not just school workers but also stakeholders, families, and outside school participants.

A strong leader running an excellent school must be “visionary, enthusiastic, creative, flexible, [and] inspiring,” in addition to the importance of values, purpose, and “people development.” However, (Greenhow et al. 2019) disagrees, claiming that new EM definitions and characteristics are arbitrary; despite this, he defined EM as “a social influence process in which one person exerts intentional influence over other individuals to structure the interactions and processes in a team or organization.” He said that contextual variances in contexts increased the variety of EM in real practice, which indicates that due to structural and social variables, not all EM features and qualities will be performed.

Alzeebaree & Zebari (2021) summarized and redefined Educational Management to reflect this. Impact, values, and visions are three of EM’s key attributes, according to him (Fan et al. 2019). In his work, EM distinguishes between power and influence, noting that power can be purposefully exerted by people or groups, whereas authority frequently follows a top-down approach. ‘Leaders are required to anchor their activities in clear professional values,’ according to (Alegado 2018). Values are also key instruments for implementing EM in education. (Alegado 2018) also stressed the significance of visions, which is “considered a crucial component of good management.” FL is autonomous of positional power and emphasizes more on ability to empower individuals who can affect organizational success through their abilities and talents, according to (Baharuldin et al. 2019). They claimed that EM practices and establishment in schools has given subordinate teachers additional roles and responsibilities, reducing the influence of principals in the process. This and the previous subsections have covered various features of EM. These reviews revealed a significant distinction: EM is more concerned with values, whereas EM is more concerned with operations. Despite these distinctions, many experts argue that in today’s society, EM is extremely crucial for school management.

 

2.1.3. Educational Management in the school setup

Dicke et al. (2010) claimed in Reframing Institutions: Artistic, Choices, and Management, that school management practices should incorporate EM ideas. They stated that modern businesses, particularly schools, require the manager’s “objective perspective… [as well as] the vision and dedication that good management  brings” (Karlberg & Bezzina 2020). Schools were not only good places to test alternative hypotheses, but this technique also opened up the prospect of EM.

Bal-Taştan et al. (2018) acknowledged that EM is important management strategies in modern schools. While a strong vision is vital for determining the type and direction of changes, it is also critical to guarantee that innovation are implemented quickly and that the school’s residual activities are carried out properly while certain parts are changing, according to (Shaturaev 2021). In other terms, EM could be used to launch school-wide change or strategic planning, and then EM can guarantee that the change is effectively implemented.

In line with his viewpoint, Smetackova et al. 2019 proposed that EM is inextricably linked because it emphasize on the goal, purpose, and aim of school. He pointed out that the roles of EM and occasionally overlap. (Bear et al. 2018) agrees that EM is practically and theoretically intertwined, and that good schools need both well-functioning management and good management methods to fulfill broad objectives. However, while these concepts are related does not make them equivalent (Donglong et al. 2020). (Petko et al. 2018) discovered that effective educational institutions need EM for promising effective learning outcomes based on their interviews with school management in education sector. However, due to a lack of conceptual knowledge and practical procedures in actual educational settings, the positions of leader and manager can occasionally overlap (Nasra & Arar 2019).

 

2.2 Educational Management Theories

Education is the primary agent of social transformation in both emerging and established nations. Consequently, the management of educational institutions is recognized as one of the most essential management perspectives. Fundamentally, educational management is a discipline pertaining to the management of educational organizations. However, because this field of study has built on the foundations of other firmly established studies, there is no single statement that defines this field of study (Shengnan & Hallinger 2021). Although the process of creating organizational goals is key to educational management, the connection between education’s goals and objectives and educational management’s actions could be deemed crucial. The other important issue is the interdependent relationship between educational management and educational leadership, as well as their effective combination to achieve success in school. The education management model that this thesis will focus on is the collegial model.

 

2.2.1 Collegial Model of Educational Management

Principal assumptions of collegial models include policy determination and conceptualization, decision-making relying on a procedure of consultations, agreements, and common understanding, and power sharing among some or all people in the organization who are believed to share a common understanding of the organization’s objectives (Postholm 2018). Three management styles are associated with collegial models: transformative leadership, participative management, and instructional leadership (Liu & Hallinger 2018). The central tenets of organizational management are a focus on the commitments and competencies of organizational members, and the fact that a greater level of personal commitment to organizational objectives and greater goal-attainment capabilities would increase the organization’s productivity (Zheng et al. 2019). In addition, (Huang et al., 2020) have conceptualized transformational leadership management in the school system based on eight measurements: building vision of the school, setting school goals, intellectual stimulation provision, providing individualized patronage, practice guidelines and key organizational values model construction, high performance anticipations screen, productive culture formation within schools, and encouraging participation in the school’s decision-making process by devoutly involving students.

Participative leadership, also known as shared, collaborative, or collegial leadership, is the second approach relevant to collegial management models of educational administration. It has been characterized as the opportunity for organizational members to participate in the decision-making process in an organization (Meyer et al. 2022), and this participation is a crucial step that must be made (Karacabey et al. 2022). As a normative theory, participative management is predicated on three criteria: an increase in school efficiency due to the application of a participatory approach, the justification of participation by democratic principles, and the availability of management to all lawful stakeholders within the framework of site-based management (Binti et al, 2020). The third leadership style associated with collegial models is distributed leadership, which is the focus of research in the twenty-first century (Ismail et al. 2018). According to Kwan (2020), this leadership style is among the most influential methods in the area of educational leadership over the past ten years. This type of leadership is independent of positional authority and based on the skills and competencies of organization’s structure members. Thus, according to Purwanto et al. (2021), distributed leadership is based on locating and utilizing organizational expertise irrespective of the organizational ranks of competent members. In short, and in the field of educational systems, distributed leadership is an approach to leadership in which collaborative work is conducted between persons who respect and trust each other’s contributions. It is most efficacious when members of the organization engage in intervention, embracing leadership in their respective areas of expertise, and requires resources to sustain and allow collaborative environments.

 

2.2.2. Instructional Leadership management

 

In the 1980s, the term “instructional leadership” (IL) first appeared in the academic sphere. (Huang et al. 2020) define IL as a strategy based on combining followers’ needs in everyday chores and coordinating these tasks with learning goals in their book Supervision of Instruction: A Development Approach. ‘Directing assistance to instructors, team building, employee training, curriculum reform, and active experimentation’ are examples of such duties (Meyer et al. 2022). (Karacabey et al. 2022) agreed with (Binti et al. 2020) and later suggested that these responsibilities should include encompass strategic vision planning, and also addressing worker motivations.

IL theory, like all other kinds of ELs, evolved as a result of study, and new viewpoints were incorporated into the area. (Ismail et al. 2018) distinguished between traditional school head and the new educational school principal or head, the latter being more interested in learning and mainly centred on the school instructional program. To put it another way, the instructional leader, whom are usually the school principals, should be responsible for not only administrative responsibilities but also classroom teachings and instructional methods. (2020, Kwan). According to (Purwanto et al. 2021), IL should improve the school culture and define the learning culture, both of which are key tasks for modern Principalship. (Postholm 2018) went on to say that a strong instructional leader must also try to enhance the potential of their followers, which in this case are mostly teachers. Furthermore, (Nasra & Arar 2019) claimed that instructional leaders must pay special attention to school curriculums, particularly when it comes to implementation. According to (Petko et al. 2018), when an instructional leader assigns tasks to followers, the leader must pay close attention to the activities’ outcomes and assess them.

Although IL has excellent efficiency and good outcomes (Donglong et al. 2020), academicians frequently exaggerate its flaws. One of IL’s most serious flaws is its disregard for the processes of goals and task formation (Hallinger 2018). The IL model obviates the requirement of setting objectives by requiring followers to adhere to their leaders (Bear et al. 2018). Tasks and g oals may not be attainable in many circumstances, and hence unable to provide positive outcome for instructional leaders (Zhou et al. 2019). In addition, (Smetackova et al. 2019) claimed that in IL theories, there is a heavy emphasis on instruction and teaching instead of learning. Bush maintained that both learning and teaching are equally crucial in achieving better school results (Shaturaev 2021).

 

2.3.2 The Professional Standards for Principals in Compulsory Education Schools

The MOE launched the PSPCE 2013 in 2013 with the goal of providing professional standards and developing professional competencies for principals in order to implement NCR rules. The PSPCE was created to offer principals with systematic support while they implemented new school management ideas. The PSPCE focuses on two policy goals: personal achievement and professional achievement. Personal accomplishment in this context refers to knowledge of administration, knowledge of teaching and learning, and personality traits. Professional accomplishment relates to skills in school planning, moral teaching and learning development for learners, training of teachers, organizational effectiveness, and public relations expertise. In summary, the PSPCE established standards that demanded more from school leaders in terms of abilities, values, and expertise.

Bal-Taştan et al. (2018) analyzed the PSPCE using a policy-borrowing approach. (Karlberg & Bezzina 2020) suggested that the PSPCE matches the contextual conditions in China and that the state did not simply borrow such policies from Western society as it had done previously by analyzing related research and policy papers. (Dicke et al. 2020) also suggested that the PSPCE could revolutionize education management and would solve three fundamental challenges in the educational system. The first of these issues is the centralised education system; many schools discovered that government officials and party affiliates did not develop effective chemistry between school administrators as a result of the centralized model (Baharuldin et al. 2019). The second issue is that the training provided to teachers and principals was insufficient to fulfill the NCR level (Olsen & Huang, 2019). The third issue was a reported lack of attention on practice both in curriculum and instruction, which failed to meet social and economic development needs.

Following the research of (Alegado 2018), (Fan et al. 2019) did a similar analysis to compare the PSPCE to the United States’ Interstate Educational Leaders Licensure Standards. (Fan et al. 2019) compared the two policies using content analysis and found that PSPCE was developed with China’s conceptualization in mind, particularly with an understanding of Chinese culture. Three policy proposals were identified as a result of differences in political interests and agendas (Alzeebaree & Zebari 2021). The first distinction would be that the PSPCE is more evaluative than the ISLLC, because the PSPCE leaves comprehensive instructions and directions to local authorities to better meet the local situations (Greenhow et al. 2019). The second distinction is that the PSPCE favored instructional leadership, but the ISLLC supported all types of ELs (Malik, 2018). The third distinction is that the PSPCE maintained norms for IL establishment in schools, whereas the ISLLC empowered principals to use various types of ELs (Ariffin et al. 2018).

The PSPCE’s shortcomings are discussed in (Liu et al. 2020) publications. In the PSPCE policies, the main training program was barely mentioned (Unger & Meiran 2020). Both papers addressed concerns about educational programs, citing historical experiences that show there is frequently a lack of adequate training programs for instructors. Furthermore, both articles established an agreement on the system of principals’ accountability. The principal’s responsibility system in the PSPCE was less defined, and the policy was ambiguous on how the monitoring program should operate (Liu et al. 2020). Generally, (Liu et al. 2020) believed that the PSPCE will help school principals strengthen their management skills.

 

 

2.4 Conceptual framework

 

Conceptual framework                                            

 

Figure 1: Conceptual framework (adapted from (Unger & Meiran 2020)

 

 

 

3.0 Methodology

This chapter will describe the study’s research methodology designs. It will begin by presenting the study’s research design that will demonstrate how the study tackles the research questions. Following that, sampling techniques will be discussed. Then there will be a discussion about data collecting. The results of the data analysis will be provided, as well as the equipment that were utilized to examine the data. Lastly, this study’s ethical implications will be discussed.

 

3.1 Research Design

A research design is a blueprint for identifying respondents, location of the research, and data collection methods in order to explore a study’s research topic(s) (Donglong et al. 2020). Descriptive research design was included in this inquiry. Additionally (Hallinger 2018) explains that a descriptive research is a quantitative research a procedure that aims to obtain quantifiable information for statistical analysis of the population sample. It is a common research instrument that allows us to collect and explain the characteristics of a demographic segment. The purpose of this study is to look into the research questions and lay the groundwork for future research. This research will look into the principal and instructors in a primary school in Henan, China. Primary school Y has been the most successful school with in district in terms of exam results and school management. Schools in the same district frequently observe school Y and learn from its teachers and principal regarding effective teaching and educational ideas. Undertaking this study in primary school Y will allow researchers to not only investigate EM practices in China’s context, but also predict how EM might be implemented in other schools.

 

 

According to (Petko et al. 2018), descriptive research entails gathering data in order to test hypothesis or solve problems pertaining to the current state of a research topic. The descriptive research study produces quantitative data that could be interpreted using scientific calculations. According to (Zhou et al. 2019), in descriptive In this design, the researcher collected data through survey methods such as self-administered questionnaires distributed to teachers in order to determine their viewpoints on the school-wide reform initiatives implemented by school administration to improve student performance.

The study fitted within the descriptive survey design. Within this design, the researcher gathered data through survey methods such as self-administered questionnaires provided to teachers in order to ascertain their perspectives on the school-wide change initiatives employed by administrators to improve student performance (Hallinger 2018). Because of the flexibility given by the case study technique, this study determined that the questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were the most acceptable methods for data collection. When each participant is subjected to same questions and same coding system, the questionnaire is said to be standardized (Bear et al. 2018). It can assist in gathering information on various figures in same scope and parameters (Zhou et al. 2019). In this study, a questionnaire is used to obtain each teacher’s overall ideas on EM as well as their comments on the principal’s EM practice. Most importantly, the questionnaire will give researchers with basic information concerning teachers and aid them in identifying possible semi-structured interview participants. Teachers who choose to participate in the survey will be offered the chance to provide their contact information at the end. More stories concerning EM practices and attitudes at the school will be revealed in the semi-structured interview that follows. Not just the teachers, but also the principal, will be interviewed.

Using this type of study has a number of advantages. ‘…has the benefit of being fairly objective while also allowing a more full comprehension of the respondent’s thoughts…’ says the semistructured interview approach (Smetackova et al. 2019). However, using open-ended questions and interviewers’ training to investigate pertinent themes that may stray from the interview guide allows for the discovery of new perspectives and understandings on the matter at hand. Interviewees will be provided the ethical information sheets and the ethical consent letter several days before the actual interviews. The survey questionnaires and purpose will be outlined on the ethical information page. Information about their ethical rights will be displayed on the ethical consent form.

The goal of this study is to find out what the principal and teachers think about EM in primary schools. This study’s logic design is to deliver questionnaires to teachers initially. The questionnaire would be used to show the existing school administration style via the perspective of the teachers. Then, utilizing several interview question sets, I will undertake semi-structured interview with volunteering school principal and the teachers. The goal of the question and answer session is to learn more about the principal’s and teachers’ perspectives on EM. After gathering data, I’ll examine the questionnaire data individually, comparing and contrasting not only the findings of the survey and interview from teachers, but also the results of the principle and teachers. As a result, the research questions would then be addressed, and the current state of EM practices will be established.

 

3.2 Sampling

The questionnaire data was collected using a combination of convenience sampling technique and snowballing techniques in this study. Convenience sampling is a strategy of locating and selecting study participants who are the most convenient to reach and who the researcher already recognizes as politically typical or significant. In other words, convenience sampling is based on a population subset that is easy to reach. The identifying and classifying initial participants of the study was helped by convenience sampling. Then, to acquire further information, snowball sampling was used.

Snowball sampling, according to Bal-Taştan et al. (2018), is “a valuable tool in exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative research, particularly in those research where participants are limited in numbers or a high levels of trust is necessary to establish the contact.” Snowball sampling is a selection procedure that is commonly carried out using networks. When the researcher doesn’t know enough about the group or organization he wants to research, it’s fortunate because a few interactions will bring him to another group (Karlberg & Bezzina 2020). Snowball sampling was employed to disseminate questionnaires among the teachers in this study.

Both sorts of sampling approaches, however, have limits. Non-random sampling, unlike random sampling, frequently results in prejudices (Dicke et al. 2020). ‘…the method the participants are obtained can readily impact the outcome by incorporating unanticipated or uncontrolled factors for both snowball and convenience sampling.’ Both strategies will produce individuals who are mostly from same geographic region. They may also share similar socioeconomic backgrounds or ethnicities (Baharuldin et al. 2019). The biases induced by both methodologies may have an impact on the study’s validity and reliability.

However, in this research, such constraints were minimized, particularly in school settings. Because this is a case study, all teachers must be in the same geographical place. However, just because these teachers work in the same place does not indicate they have same socioeconomic class; while they earn similar salaries, the majority of them are married, and their household income and inheritances are unknown. With this, no one contacted by convenience sampling has a high or senior position at a school, reducing prejudices from power and influence plays in data sampling.

Because I personally know numerous teachers at the targeted school, convenience sampling was also used. I instructed them to disseminate the survey to their friends within the school after I gave them the questionnaire, which is a sort of snowball sampling. I did not send financial rewards for questionnaire distribution to avoid bias, and I did not include the first participants in the later interview session to avoid prejudices. After initial samples, the survey was circulated and filled out voluntarily in order to eliminate any biases that may have been introduced inadvertently This study was meant to have 50 people participate in the survey and 5 people participate in the interview. For the principal evaluation, I asked one of the professors to introduce me to the school’s principal. During my initial meeting with the principal, I requested an interview. My request was graciously granted by the principal, who requested a copy of my completed dissertation as a reward.

 

3.3 Ethical Consideration

Academic researchers should follow the British Academic Research Association’s ethical rules, which include that they should treat all people involved in their research with respect. People should be treated equitably, compassionately, with decency, and in a respectful and libertarian manner. This study adheres to all ethical criteria. Both the survey and the survey questionnaires were thoughtfully written. Respondents were free to withdraw or withdraw from activities at any time, as mentioned on the ethical information sheets and consent letter. Such reactions were not taken into account, and the data was discarded. Interviewees have the freedom to decline to respond to any questions if it isn’t asked in the right way. This study’s subjects were all anonymous, and no identities were revealed in any context. Rather, the interviewee teachers were given the initials A, B, C, and D. The survey did not ask for identities or contact details unless the participant freely provided them. This study’s data will be used exclusively for this study. Upon demand, a replica of this dissertation would be supplied to the participants. All collecting data activities under this study adhere to Chinese government regulations.

 

3.4 Data Collection

The questionnaire was created using Qualtrics, an online network. I was able to create questions, record outcomes, and conduct preliminary data analysis for future use using this web platform. A Chinese program, Wechat, was used to distribute the questionnaire, which was written in Qualtrics and delivered to the initial representative sample of teachers. In China, this software is commonly used for communication on laptops and phones. Teachers would fill out the survey on their computers or phones, and they could also share it to other teachers. They should be aware that they should only fill out the survey once, after which the link will expire and they will only be able to redistribute the survey. The findings were significant: More than 100 instructors responded to the survey, and four teachers expressed an interest in being interviewed. These outcomes were not dissimilar to what had been predicted.

Teachers were required to sign an ethical information document and a consent was obtained before they could proceed with the questionnaire. The questionnaire was broken into seven categories in providing an insight into the targeted school’s style of management. Long-term objectives, communication, responsibilities, teacher assessment, school participation, self-evaluation, and EM assessment in school were the seven aspects. Teachers are asked to rate existing school regulations or their views on school management on a scale for each component. For instance, the questions that inquires about the school’s long-term aims, and questions that inquires about the instructors’ assessment of the long term goals.

 

This design’s logic is to display teachers’ viewpoints on current school administration as well as the school principal’s EM practices. Because EM concentrates on values, goals, and personal impacts, asking questions on visions, communications, and values will aid in examining EM practices from the perspective of instructors. Questions on school standards, including teacher assessment and reward programs, reveal the contemporary management policy initiatives at the school. Teachers can express their opinions on working in the school by answering self-evaluation questions, and it’s also a vital measure of school management. There was a question at the end of the survey asking if the person was willing to engage in the survey, which helped to identify willing interview participants. Following receipt of the survey findings, communication was made with all those who agreed to participate in the voluntary interview. Interviewees were approached individually for ethical reasons, and interviews were held outside of school also on weekend. The interviewees signed the ethical fact sheets and the ethical consent letter prior to the interview session.

The interview questions are usually considered and divided into three topics, while individual questions varies based on the participants’ responses. The initial batch of inquiries focused on the existing school administration. ‘What do you feel about modern school culture, and what do you think about the modern school administration style?’ for instance. The second question focused on how instructors felt about the principal. Teachers were addressed questions like ‘what do you regard the principal’s contributions in school administration, and how would you rank your principal?’ to get their opinions on the principal.

The third theme focused on English as a Second Language (ESL) in schools. Teachers were polled regarding their attitudes about EM in the classroom, as well as how they rated their principal’s management practices. The goal of asking such questions was to get teachers’ perspectives on their professions first, then the principal’s, before moving on to evaluating EM in schools. This step-by-step approach was created to alleviate any interview anxiety and keep instructors talking. The duration of the interviews ranged from 15 and 25 minutes.

In addition, the principal was interviewed in his office. The survey questionnaire were similar to those used by teachers, and they were geared for a different audience. The conversation revolved around three main themes: school administration, school instructors, and management practices. One of the main subjects is, “What is your education ideology, and how do you implement it into school?” Teachers were the second group. Instead of asking about teachers’ performance, I enquired about the school’s communication approach and teaching resources. The third aspect focused on management model as it was used by the principal. To gain his viewpoint, questions were asked about self-evaluation regarding EM practice and school administration challenges. The purpose of these three aspects is to cross reference the perspectives of the teachers and principal in order to find the causes for similarities and discrepancies that may also reveal how EM activities are articulated and practiced in reality. The interview went on for over 45 minutes.

 

3.5 Data Analysis

The data will be analyzed using three different methods: descriptive analysis, regression analytics, and theme analysis. For survey questionnaires, descriptive statistical analysis and regression analytics will be employed, while for interview data, theme analysis will be used. Descriptive statistics will provide replies from instructors in the form of figures, percentages, and graphs, such as the proportion of teachers who feel the school’s long-term goal is legitimate and effective. The frequency analysis of instructors’ replies in different questions will also be summarized using cross-tabulation. There are three advantages to employing descriptive statistical analysis in data analysis, according to (Olsen & Huang, 2019). Descriptive statistics deal directly with observing behaviors and displaying distinct perceptions and characteristics of those activities (Alegado 2018). Descriptive analysis can be combined with other analytical approaches to intuitively examine behaviors (Fan et al. 2019). Most notably, descriptive statistical analysis can be employed as “an assessment technique” in most situations, demonstrating their versatility in most situations (Greenhow et al. 2019). This study will use regression analysis to assess connections between variables like teacher work happiness and the principal’s EM practice score, based on basic descriptive statistics. Most significantly, the regression analyses will show how the dependent variable varies as the independent variables vary. The findings of descriptive analysis and regression analyses will be generated using SPSS software in this study.

Following the descriptive statistical and regression analysis, the data from the interview with both instructors and the principal will be investigated using a thematic analysis approach. The process of discovering themes or patterns in quantitative  data is known as thematic analysis (Malik, 2018). It is an approach that is not restricted to a single theoretical viewpoint, demonstrating the simplicity and flexibility of theme analysis (Ariffin et al. 2018). Despite the flexibility and simplicity of the thematic method, this research will utilize the analysis in six steps (Unger & Meiran 2020). Knowing your data, categorize and produce codes, look for themes, examine and define themes, as well as write up the findings are the six phases (Liu et al. 2020). This study will explore related themes dependent on participants’ responses and delve into the significance of the data by following these stages.

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Executive Summary

Hope Christian Academy (HCA) is a private church school instigated by Hope of the City Church. HCA has been licensed to offer a childcare program. Another ministry by Hope of the City Church is the HopeKidz Foundation. This is a non-profit group that serves poor students in the Philippines to accomplish their education. A marketing plan will help HCA market the childcare program to improve their tuition fees and help support the HopeKidz Foundation. HCA exists to offer academic excellence founded on a Biblical worldview while nurturing authentic Christian character. HCA is renowned for its high test scores as well as caring teachers and employees. Hope Christian Academy childcare program desires to offer creative learning with an emphasis on independence and inventiveness. The SWOT analysis provides HCA’s key strengths and weaknesses and defines the childcare program’s opportunities and threats. HCA childcare is targeting the middle to upper class two-income professional households. Pertaining the marketing mix entails pricing, distribution, advertising and promotion, and excellent customer service. For effective marketing, the school will spend on social media advertisements for Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Typically, it will take up to ten months for the HCA childcare venture to yield better returns to support the HopeKidz Foundation effectively. The facility will use parent feedback, revenue earned, and market share attained to assess performance.

 

Marketing Plan for Hope Christian Academy

Company Description

Hope Christian Academy (HCA) is a private church school instigated in 2011 by Hope of the City Church. HCA has been licensed to offer a childcare program. Before this, it primarily serves students between four and twelve years who attended the church. God has helped them start a childcare program for both members and non-members, with the ability to register children, not of school age. Another ministry by Hope of the City Church is the HopeKidz Foundation. It is a non-profit group that serves poor students in the Philippines to accomplish their education. The ministry has helped bring numerous families to God since it currently serves one hundred and forty students in the Philippines.

In December 2020, the church obtained offerings and donations to help ten students locally and sponsor them to register at Hope Christian Academy through the HopeKidz Foundation. HCA uses ten percent of its monthly tuition fee from every student to help needy students in the Philippines through the HopeKidz Foundation. Hence, a marketing plan will help HCA market its new venture, the childcare program, to improve their tuition fees and further support the HopeKidz Foundation. According to Evans and Ballen (2015), a marketing plan is a document charting the actions to attain intended marketing objectives. Marketing plans help people focus their efforts on generating high profits for their business. It helps define the product or service, identifies clients and competitors, outlines a plan for enticing and retaining clients, and expected market changes.

Mission and Goals

The mission of HCA is to get ready for God’s kids for their life journey. It exists to offer academic excellence founded on a Biblical worldview while nurturing authentic Christian character. The programs are planned to meet the requirements of infant, toddler, and preschool kids in a safe, cultivating environment (Mission and Vision Statements, 2021). HCA’s goal comprises offering learning and developmental involvements emotionally, physically, as well as spiritually. It disciples children to be zealous followers of Christ and equips them to manage schedules, prioritize duties, and autonomously set and attain goals. Moreover, HCA prepares students to be Biblically equipped in their learning, ministries, professions, and individual lives.

Core Competencies                                        

Core competencies involve resources and capabilities, which consist of the strategic advantages of a company. Firms should define, nurture, and make the most of their core competencies to prosper against the market competition (Palacios-Marqués et al., 2019). HCA is renowned for its high test scores as well as caring teachers and employees. It is dedicated to offering outstanding value-based education, which trains, equips, and prepares preschool to 8th-grade learners to nurture their God-given capabilities. The school trusts in the Word of God, focuses on Jesus Christ, and is devoted to assisting learners to realize God’s resolve in their lives. One of the institution’s most outstanding strong points is character development.

Competitive Analysis

HCA has a Child Care Certificate Program to help Families First applicants, parents transitioning from Families First, parents working or registered for post-secondary education, teenage parents, and kids in foster care. Hope Christian Academy childcare program desires to offer creative learning with an emphasis on independence and inventiveness. Children encounter such new challenges as crawling, walking, and running at a young age, which they learn best in an inspiring environment. There is music, stories, as well as outdoor play. The caregivers are devoted to helping every child nurture their skills via a believing and loving relation. A parental daily report will inform families on meal times, nap times, and toilet training conducted during the day. The program will have a low teacher-student ratio, customized amenities, and inventive learning packages.  The hours of operation will be more than ordinary business to accommodate working parents. The childcare program offers healthy and tasty food for children.

Typically, ten percent of the tuition fees obtained from the childcare program will be geared towards supporting poor students in Leyte, Bohol, Iloilo, and Cebu, the Philippines, through the HopeKidz Foundation. By partnering with parents, HCA will continually support and offer the poor students a better future by the grace of God. However, the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic might impede the acquisition of enough parents presenting their children for the childcare program. Therefore, the school will have to make strong promotion campaigns through social media and referrals to assure parents of their children’s safety at the facility. Firms are using social media platforms to grow their geographic reach to consumers, boost brand assessments, and build closer links with clients (Li et al., 2020). HCA will use Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat to promote the new childcare program.  Facebook has numerous seasoned adults and the older generation, implying that many parents will see the advertisements. Instagram is used by young adults, permitting them to encourage young families or their parents and younger siblings to join. Finally, Snapchat is used by elementary, middle, and high school students. They may get interested and request their parents to enrol their siblings in the childcare program.

Situation Analysis: SWOT Analysis

The assessment of a firm’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is a means of perceiving its internal and external marketing setup. The checking of prevailing macroeconomic forces impacts a business’s ability to earn profits by identifying trends and significant developments in the sector (Saari, 2015). This SWOT analysis offers HCA’s key strengths and weaknesses and defines the opportunities and threats fronting the childcare program.

Strengths

HCA childcare is a safe and sophisticated STEM-led learning hub, which concentrates on nurturing every kid’s critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. The program offers excellent training programs for all employees to be at par with the need to teach children Biblical-based standards via story-telling, songs, games, crafts, and involvement in physical undertakings. Boone and Kurtz (2019) hold that customer satisfaction is the capability of the client to get satisfied by the service or goods offered by a company. This is what HCA seeks to ensure through convenience. The facility is accessible based on its location in SeaTac, Washington.  It operates from 7:00 am to 6:00 pm, offering parents enough time to accomplish their daily endeavours. Further, the facility is competitively priced because the full-time preschool monthly tuition fee is $ 1,300, the annual curriculum fee is $ 250, and the application fee for new students is $150.

Weaknesses

The HCA childcare program lacks visibility because of the newness of its operations. There is also difficulty in attracting and maintain well-trained workers to meet Christian standards. It is also hard to seamlessly predict the demand for services concerning the number of workers available.

Opportunities

There is a developing market with a vast percentage of target consumers who are not yet aware of the HCA childcare package. Also, an opportunity for more revenue exists because more individuals are working, thereby incapable of caring for their kids in the day. As the total number of preschool kids served increases, fixed costs get spread over a more significant client base.

Threats                                                        

However, there is high competition from reputable facilities, which enhance their service to be more modest compared to HCA childcare. In addition, there are baseless “public scares” concerning child care. Lastly, there can be legal liability concerns, such as a lawsuit against HCA childcare or substantial rises in premiums because of fluctuations in the operating setting of the sector.

Competitors

There are numerous competitors in the childcare industry. HCA’s childcare direct competitors include established, franchised childcare hubs, big and offer care to a broad array of ages.  The number of kids served is relatively large, the child care is sufficient, although slightly detached based on its large size. Also, competition will emanate from small home-centred childcare. These are individuals with a child care amenity outside their house.  The quality ranges significantly because some are great, while others are subpar. Finally, there are medium-sized businesses, which are independently held amenities.  Some tackle a wide array of ages, yet others focus on a particular age.

Target Market

The target market is the core of other marketing choices, including market mix selection, procurement, and supply chain. Market targeting entails some stages so that the appeal of every market segment is evaluated, and then the desired segment to go into is chosen (Aghdaie & Alimardani, 2015). HCA childcare is targeting the middle to upper class two-income professional households.  The group has both parents working, not permitting them time to nurture their child in the daytime. They have money for child care and are ready to spend some extra amount to obtain a greater intensity of care. The client segment is already teaching their kid such concepts as reading and singing. HCA childcare will keep developing the kids’ abilities and encompass them with some Christian values. Furthermore, the target group prefers a more organized learning environment instead of leaving their children with relatives. They prefer relatives for great nights out and weekends. They are aware that the structured program ensures better learning and development for their children.  With both parents as experts, they are determined to have their child develop well physically, emotionally, and spiritually. Hence, they are ready to pay to obtain HCA’s childcare program.

Marketing Mix

Marketing mix implies the product, distribution, promotion, and pricing approaches to create and conduct exchanges and attain the target markets. The marketing mix involves pertinent elements and solutions, which help consumers meet their requirements and achieve the objectives instituted by the company (Išoraitė, 2016). HCA’s childcare marketing mix is summative of pricing, which is done monthly for the tuition fees and annually for the curriculum fee. Regarding distribution, all childcare services will be provided at the SeaTac facility. On the other hand, advertising and promotion will be done through word of mouth referrals and social media ads through Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Finally, the customer service will be excellent because parents and their children will be amusingly astonished at how focused HCA childcare is concerned of their needs. The facility operates on the postulation that it will do what is necessary to keep the client contented and the child is led through Christian values.

Marketing Expense Budget

  2021 2022 2023
Facebook $600 $400 $200
Instagram $400 $150 $50
Snapchat $300 $200 $100
Total Sales and Marketing Expenses $1300 $750 $350

Schedule

The first month will be utilized to renovate the facility and cover stipulations for the state health and license requirements.  In the course of this, training programs and manuals will be offered to successful applicants to the position of caregivers.  Despite there being standard training programs for caregivers, HCA childcare will have to customize its own. This is because the facility is unique and aims to ensure it imparts Christian values to its students. The first week of the second month will be utilized in coaching the personnel.  By mid the second month, HCA childcare will begin admitting children for care.  It is expected that the amenity will be underutilized until the tenth month, mainly because of the Covid-19 pandemic. However, by then, things will have eased up, word will have spread about the new program, and classes will fill up pleasantly.

Monitoring

HCA childcare is still in the speculative phase as a child care amenity.  Hence, it will have to take a shy fiscal tactic, grow at a reasonable proportion based on the assessment of the economy; and keep building brand awareness to drive new clients. The facility will use parent feedback, revenue earned, and market share attained to assess performance. Because marketing is meant to persuade clients to purchase products or services, watching for customer feedback using polls and surveys are critical for monitoring marketing plan evolution (Price & Johnson, 2015). The generated revenue is significant, and with the marketing plan, HCA childcare seeks to find out the impact of the target market. The establishment will monitor social advertising costs to lower spending and maximize income to help fund the HopeKidz Foundation using ten percent of the tuition fee.

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1.1 Overview

This introduction chapter covers the background of the study, problem statement, research aims, research questions, study significance, study limits, and definitions of terms.

1.2 Background of the study

As we enter the twenty-first century, there is a greater need for adjustment and change in practically every facet of life around the world. No state or people can remain stuck in an unchanging tradition while the others advance at breakneck speed. Most forces and voices are asking for more focus on educational reform and improvement planning at all educational levels (Zeng & Day 2019). “This is a struggle for the country’s social and economic well-being as we prepare for future century,” says China’s state department for employment and education (Haiyan & Allan 2021). China is also one of the countries that is working to improve educational opportunities for its citizens. It is, however, difficult to transform a system in which individuals are economically divided. That is, the cultural and social background influences educational views.

Indicators for measuring success in a number of organizational settings, such as schools, have been identified by educational scholars. Five factors of effective performance in school were discovered by (Zheng et al. 2019): Strong principal management; a peaceful, calm, and work-oriented climate in schools; a stronger focus on academic growth and programs; and constant monitoring of students performance. These factors of school effectiveness were later listed by (Yang et al. 2018):  instructor behaviors that indicate a belief that all students will acquire at least the requisite understanding; and the use of student performance measurements as the foundation for performance review.

However, the National Standardized Achievement Tests were utilized as performance markers in the majority of previous American studies (Meyer et al. 2022). As a result, in China, ‘effectiveness’ meant increasing average school scores in mathematics and reading, or numeracy and literacy. Effective schools, according to (Yuan et al. 2018), are those where all pupils learn basic skills, strive for academic achievement in all fields, and systematic testing can be used to demonstrate performance. Effective schools, according to this opinion, have greater accountability and turnout as a result of increased educational excellence.

The insistence on standardized achievement exams as the single most important factor in determining whether or not a school is “successful” has been regarded with varying degrees of skepticism. Most scholars are concerned that a focus on effectiveness will lead to a reduction in attention for other equally important educational objectives including equality, participation, and social equity (Lu & Hallinger 2018). As a result, defining objectives as standardized test scores may result in a major re-allocation of resources to basic skills areas at the expense of other curricular areas.

Reviewers have sought to minimize these factors to reasonable amounts by detecting commonalities on a periodic basis (Duan et al. 2018), but this efforts is shown to lead to a decrease of clarity and meaningful significance. The review (Ma & Marion 2021) alluded to thirteen primary efficacy indicators, which were divided into two categories: organizational/structure factors and process variables. The past have had a focus on school-based management, effective educational leadership, consensus on goals and staff stability, education employee engagement and performance, parental support, acknowledgement of academic accomplishment, time management skills, and encouragement and support from the district.  School-wide collaboration and planning, commitment to the organization, and clearly defined goals and expectations and well-known and implemented norms were the four process factors.

School effectiveness research has had a significant impact on educational practice and policy. As (Huang et al. 2020) has noted out, the findings have helped to shatter the myth that schools could do little to affect the society in which they operate, as well as the myth that students’ development is so strongly influenced by their familial background that they will be immune to school’s impact. The second advantage of a school efficiency research is that, in addition to refuting myths about education’s ineffectiveness, this may help to reduce the use of family history by teachers as a reason for educational failure. Third, according to (Yin & Zheng 2018), teachers have regularly been found to be key factors of students’ intellectual and social success in studies, and as a result, teachers’ professional self-esteem has been enhanced and built. The fourth advantage would be that school effectiveness study has started to build a knowledge base that is “known to be valid” and can be used as a foundation of training.

 

1.3 Statement of the problem

Positive findings of the research on ‘collaboration’ have been found in several studies on school effectiveness, indicating that it is a factor contributing to school development. According to (Shengnan & Hallinger 2021), both the success of school systems development and the effectiveness of schooling are aided by collaborative management, school improvement and school management initiatives on one hand which greatly influences the success and effectiveness of the school. The performance of schools and the success of school improvement are both important factors that have both been linked to school management. However, there has been minimal research on the relationship between what management do, the level of participation of teachers, and the contextual factors that affect the effectiveness of school management efforts.

In general, research study on primary education are limited. In a significant sense, any persistent research in this sector will add to our understanding and knowledge of education in an intriguing and substantive way. While this means that substantial opportunities for researchers exist, it also means that there are potential issues. The issues, methodologies, and theoretical approaches adopted in the Western literature are expected to have a considerable influence on studies on the China scenario (Liu 2018).

 

1.4 Objectives of the research

  1. To compare and contrast collaborative management and school effectiveness in Fujian, China.
  2. To contrast and compare school management style of Chinese primary schools Fujian.
  3. To examine school management training needs in relationship to collaborative management styles for Chinese primary school education in Fujian.

1.5 Research questions

Q1: How does collaborative management and school effectiveness relate in Fujian, China?

Q2: What is the school management style of Chinese primary schools in Fujian?

Q3: What are the school management training needs in relationship to collaborative management styles for Chinese primary school education in Fujian?

1.6 Significance of the study

In the Western world, the results of studies on school effectiveness have been widely utilized. However, there has been little research on the school effectiveness and its implications in China. There have been several recent works on emerging countries by Western scholars, but it is critical that extensive research be conducted in specific countries, such as China, to assist clarify their particular cultural and policy challenges (Liu & Hallinger 2018). Those with experience in the nation in question are often the best people to perform such study. Furthermore, the study of primary school effectiveness in relation to headteachers management style, or SMT, has been pushed repeatedly but unsuccessfully, demonstrating a lack of education research in China, and it is a relatively new subject for expansion (Xia 2020).

However, it is also necessary to consider China’s unique social, cultural, policy, historical, educational and political traits. It is vital to explore the concerns and difficulties of education in China in a way that is meaningful to the policymakers, teachers and others concerned, as well as to the academic research communities. Questions on the cultural and specific policy implications of relevant topics, including testing results and China’s unique spiritual values, can also be highlighted in relationship to its effects on students, teachers, and schools (Zhang & Sun 2018).

Evidence suggests that differences in school cultures account for a considerable percentage variation in staff practices and student achievement among schools. There is an urgent need in China for school effectiveness studies to broaden and enhance policymakers’ understanding of the primary aspects that can increase school effectiveness (Chen & Guo 2020). This research could help with educational policy and strategic issues in the realm of education administration. The purpose is also to raise awareness of the inherent disparities in schools that can impede students’ advancement.

According to (Zeng & Day 2019) analyses of school effectiveness studies in the Third World, local schools are rarely employed and evaluated in depth as a subject of analysis in most studies. It is usual in the Third World to find that school performance are predominantly determined by resource availability. Therefore, it is time to capitalize on the present trend in Western literature by looking at school process qualities that are more ephemerally defined as school culture aspects (Haiyan & Allan 2021) and their effects on school effectiveness. That is to say, in this study, the managerial style of headteachers in relation to collaborative management will be thoroughly explored.

Although, the importance of broad concepts of effectiveness has lately been emphasized in Western-based research, China has maintained a strong emphasis on academic success (Chen & Guo 2020). To emphasize how important it is, students in primary secondary schools are given academic report cards to take home each semester, which detail the students’ standing in the class and year category. The student’s overall behavior is the only feature not expressed in percentages and numbers on the card.

There are also instances where schools provide pupils with handouts to take home in order to display their parents their child’s current academic standing on a regular basis. In Chinese schools, academic accomplishment is highly valued. I will show (using studies of school reform and achievement literature, as well as interview interpretation) that academic excellence is simply one part of a successful school. However, as this thesis progresses, it will become clear that a concentration on academic accomplishment is a policy and cultural issue. The current thesis focuses mostly on the practical implications and further development of this deeply rooted tradition. It is also believed that by comprehending all the above, a strategy may be devised to assist (if appropriate) these headteachers and teachers in adhering to the Ministry’s directions, as well as to inform the Ministry’s policies on collaborative and democratic school administration. To put it another way, to fill the gap between the Ministry’s and teachers’ and principals’ knowledge of such problems.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Collaborative management – Collaborative management can be characterized as a collection of diverse management strategies that foster a sense of unity and teamwork among an organization’s management, in this case school administration (Huang et al. 2020).

School effectiveness – The way school effectiveness is used in school effectiveness research is how it is defined. After making adjustments for student background conditions, this basically means that differences in how well students do in different schools are put down to things that schools can change (Chen & Guo 2020).

School management – Managing a school means running it in line with the educational policies you want. It looks at all parts of the school (policies, material and human resources, programs, activities, equipment, etc.) and puts them all together in a way that works well (Bush et al. 2018).

School Improvement – School improvement is the practice of developing schools better, both in terms of how well they do in the classroom and how well they help kids and adults develop their social and cultural lives (Dong et al. 2020). It talks about how schools are trying to improve teaching and learning by changing how things are done in the classroom and how management is set up.

1.7 The organizational study

There are five chapters in this research. The first chapter introduces the research. It also expresses the study’s core theme. Background information, significant information, research questions and objectives, and the overall study are all covered. The second chapter contains the literature review. The methodology of the study is discussed in the chapter 3. The conclusions of the investigation are reported in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains the advice and conclusion.

 

2.1 Introduction

To begin, it is vital to review recent study findings on education system and school effectiveness in order to compare and contrast views on school effectiveness, school leadership style, and collaborative management style. As a result, this chapter will concentrate on concerns about school effectiveness, and also conceptual and empirical challenges presented in the research literature. In what ways these do relate to the China national ideal of educational excellence? This is investigated in order to bridge the gap between the official notions of the Chinese Ministry and those of the Western world, on the one end, and teachers and the headteachers, on the other.

Several studies have attempted to determine the organizational factors of school performance on the basis of teachers’ performance and educational quality. In other terms, the influence of organizational culture on job behavior and organizational performance is currently being heavily highlighted.

According to researchers, basic assumptions, beliefs, and values in organizations can impact members’ perceptions, sentiments, and overt behaviors. In order to maintain this focus, some academics in the area of educational management have been examining the relationship between organizational processes and school quality. The majority of the studies indicates that school characteristics and culture have a beneficial impact on school performance.

2.2 School culture

According to Zeng & Day (2019), organizational culture is a system of underlying beliefs that a specific group invents, discovers, or develops as it learns to deal with its challenges of outward adoption and strategic implementation. Culture is defined as a system of common, taken-for-granted meanings with both explicitly and implicitly content that is taught and transmitted among participants of a historically bound social class, both intentionally and unintentionally (Haiyan & Allan 2021). (2019, Zheng et al.) As a result, a school’s culture is made up of shared meanings among the students. There may be numerous subcultures within the school, such as one or even more students’ subcultures and one or many instructor subcultures.

But, the word “school cultures” is solely used in this thesis to refer to teacher cultural context or subcultures. (Yang et al. 2018) have all argued that in an educational organization, shared values and beliefs shape not only organizational practices and structures, but also people’ perceptions and values, influencing their attitudes, commitment, and performance. Under the influence of unparalleled scope and velocity of educational change, cultures in change are common. However, in other aspects, this reflects a generation-old industrial change. Changes in the environment have an impact on school cultures. Since schools are distributed systems, (Meyer et al. 2022) claimed, change should not have to happen in a clear and consistent manner.

In reality, only a small percentage of school cultures slip into the extremes mentioned above. Real schools can be found at any position between the four corners. Since schools are loosely connected organizations, separate parts of the school, like teacher subcultures and specific classes, have their own distinct cultures, may be placed in various segments from rest of the school, as indicated by (Yuan et al. 2018). In this model, the ideal school from the literature on school effectiveness is in the center, attempting to maintain its selected optimal position in social management and social cohesiveness domains. The principal has high standards for staff work and for the students’ teachers.

Conduct expectations are likewise high. These standards, however, are not seen as unreasonable since everyone is encouraged to strive for them and recognized when they are met. Despite the fact that the school is rigorous for both instructors and learners, it is nonetheless regarded as a fun place to be. However, it must be recognized that the internal and external stakeholders of schools in other position might regard their schools to be successful as well; with the exception of those in the south-east corner.

2.3 School effectiveness

Is there a link between one type of school culture and school effectiveness over another? As a result, the response is dependent on the effectiveness criteria utilized. Staff will emphasize their performance in terms of expressiveness effects that may entail low levels of crime, even while the school with such a welfare – based culture is weak by educational criterion, with poor education outcome measures. The formal school culture, on the other hand, is associated with considerable academic pressure while placing less emphasis on the expressive realm (Lu & Hallinger 2018). It is possible to hypothesize that when schoolchildren come from families who are committed to the school’s excellent academic performance and who are capable of achieving those goals, the school will be effective according to the criteria in place, including fee-paying boarding and specialized institutions.

When students and parents have poor academic best interests, expectations, and involvement, and students possess low self-esteem, a formal school’s failing to offer supportive social stability may make it less impactful in terms of education outcomes – for instance, some internal England schools and some very remote schools in China. The ‘whole institution’ culture may be related with differential or selective effectiveness: the school may be ineffective for students who deteriorate under overwhelming instrumental and/or expressive stresses, but others may cope well with, or even thrive in this ethic (Duan et al. 2018). In fact, while there is a basic question about whether school success is related to culture of school, there’s also the question of whether some cultures are far more beneficial for specific types of educators and pupils.

The balanced culture school may claim to become the most effective because it achieves some ideal position in both domains, but this happens only when both transactional and transformative outcomes are given equal weight in the efficacy indicators. Many families and politicians, it could be argued, place a higher priority on the instrumental than the intellectual, as is the case in Chinese schools. In recent times, there have been two important shifts in the way scholars see school Principalship. First, school effectiveness has been connected to Principalship and related management approaches. Similarly, leadership methods, especially those related to curriculum implementation, are likely to have a significant impact on the success of the schools in that they are implemented (Ma & Marion 2021).

2.4 The efficiency of schools in the past

The school effectiveness movement in Western nations originated in the 1970s as a result of efforts to examine and refute the negative signals concerning education connected with early assessments of 1960s initiatives, especially the Coleman Reports, as well as responses to negative publicity of the schools. The movement’s origins in the U. S. were similar to those of the ‘war on poverty’ initiatives: a search for educational reform which focus on providing an effective education for all students, particularly those who were “educationally deprived” or underprivileged students from minority or poor upbringings (Huang et al. 2020). Although the goals were same, the techniques were fundamentally different.

Raising the school-leaving age and rearranging schools in the UK together with changing standards of education, has given policy and research discussion a new focus in recent years. Concerns over educational standards and accountability have merged, causing the focus to shift away from kid’s equal opportunity. The trend is toward parity in terms of experience and outcomes. There has obviously been a growing interest in the standard of the schooling kids receive during a period when the majority of children attend a similar kind of school for the same amount of time. At the same time, worries about underachievement among specific groups of students – minority groups, girls, and the middle class – remain strong, and comparison studies between schools have added a new dimension (Yin & Zheng 2018).

Although education appears to be unable to change class and other social distinctions in the short term, there is indications of persistent differences in the educational and progress of students from similar socioeconomic backgrounds, which appears to be somewhat attributed to the schools they study. (Shengnan & Hallinger 2021) is one of the earliest studies to look at differences in outcomes between particular schools rather than focusing on socioeconomic class and cost. Social class and varied levels of achievement are assumed in these research and employed as controlling instead of explanatory variables. In addition, the concept of school success has been broadened: measurements that were formerly considered primarily as indications of pupil growth are now seen as having the capacity to indicate the effects and efficacy of schools.

Parallel to these advancements in studies, schools and LEA-based practice assessments have become more common in the United Kingdom. The goal of studying results in this case is to identify practice areas within schools that may need to be reviewed or changed. Teachers, administrators, and counsellors at the school level are becoming more worried about the usefulness of outcome metrics. For the past fifteen years, schools have been compelled to publicize some portions of their public exam results, and as a result, school outcomes have become a topic of public concern. In ordinary schools, however, there is no evidence how this market-oriented method leads to the promised improvement. Only the schools named above, as well as a few other well-performing normal schools, have been able to follow and maintain the idea (Liu & Hallinger 2018). People who believe in the market concept, on the other hand, will undoubtedly notice a reduction in teacher morale once their performance is made public, particularly in schools serving low-income communities. The main premise of the method is that successful schools will be rewarded, while failing schools will be forced to change their ways.

2.5 Background information on topics related to school improvement and effectiveness

In Western countries, there is evidence of a fundamental change in the way schools are managed. It could represent a historic transition after more than a decade of steady expansion and achievement in largely centralized governmental educational systems. Governments are observed reacting to shifts in values that influence educational policy. Quality, equality, and efficiency are among these values (Liu 2018). As a result, the government’s or central government’s energies are increasingly focused on creating broad goals and aspirations, identifying results, and building accountability structures. Schools are given a part of the accountability for accomplishing these goals, including the freedom to make decisions about programs and resources. This is a considerable change from less than 40 years ago, when educational policymakers and scholars were gloomy about the potential impact of school-based factors.

The majority of the above-mentioned research was conducted in the secondary sector, and little was known about the distinctions between junior high and secondary schools, as well as their consequences on the students who joined them. In fact, just two significant English studies that address this questions of elementary school efficacy have been presented. These are the following: (Xia 2020) conducted the Junior School Project, as well as a research group from University of London.

It’s worth noting that, in the last century or so, there’s been a rising discussion among researchers and educators in Western nations concerning the extent to which schools differ in their efficiency in assisting students’ learning and growth. The high interest level in school effectiveness may be owing to the subject’s importance to both school principals and lawmakers, and also parents and students. Moreover, the effectiveness research necessitates that teachers acknowledge their own significance.

2.6 Critical issues in school effectiveness

The notion of effectiveness of school is a complicated topic with no commonly accepted guidelines (Zhang & Sun 2018). As a result, a slew of new issues have arisen, many of which are hotly disputed. When effectiveness of school is frequently described in terms of objective achievement, the first challenge occurs. When a school can achieve its goals or objectives, it is said to be effective. The issue is, for instance, how do school systems and their staffs concur on the goals and objectives set, and are the objectives realistic enough for all involved to strive for?

If the conceptions of organizational goals were similarly obvious, school effectiveness is a rather simple concept. However, the idea of educational goals, or objectives, raises a slew of issues. “They are legitimately many diverse and will arise from the traditions of school, the beliefs of the faculty, and their assessments of both present and future,” (Chen & Guo 2020) acknowledged the difficulty in agreeing on educational goals. Furthermore, a school’s ‘efficiency’ might be employed in relation to certain subgroups within a school. Different priorities, according to (Hallinger 2020), cause conflict instead of the cooperative development of common goals. In this case, a primary school might well be considered ineffectual for working-class students, or highly effective for Year 5 students, or any other set of students. The second difficulty that arises from the conception of effectiveness of school is indeed the question from which goals are associated with specific aspects of the school’s operation. On this, (Dong et al. 2020) highlighted the following ways which the effectiveness was framed in perspective of goal achievement:

First, there are the outcomes, such as student exam performance and personal and social growth. This is a frequently utilized strategy since quantifying school efficiency in terms of student performance is essential to students, parents, and teachers. Nonetheless, until outcomes are measured in relationship to intake variables, looking at this aspect alone will not tell us anything about school’s impacts, the (Zheng et al. 2018) stated. If we only look at exam results, for instance, school B may appear ineffectual in comparison to school A. When student attainment levels upon arrival to the school are accounted, it may turn out be effective, i.e., pupils in school B were already intellectually deficient when they entered the school.

Second, elements of the process include school culture or ethos, staff and student engagement with how school operates, and the degree of instructional that is taking place in the classroom. Although effectiveness is hard to define accurately, empirical investigations have proven that it is nonetheless significant (Huang et al. 2020). Schools effectiveness should also have a strong ethos, common values, and a favorable relationship between staff and students.

Third, in considerations of the school’s performance in obtaining inputs, such as the number of skilled teachers hired, government funding, or the resources of the students. Gaining inputs is critical given school management at the local level, parental responsibility, and open enrolling, all of which create a competitive environment for students. This characteristic alone does not respond to the questions of the school’s organizational effectiveness.

The third issue is effectiveness judgments, which are based on different values and criteria among the many individuals and groups that are interested in the school. This means that instructors, students, school board members, and parents may disagree over what constitutes an effective school. Stakeholder groups may have interests that are unlikely to coincide (Aliyyah et al. 2020). A majority of effectiveness studies have expressed the fourth worry that schools’ effects may not be the same for all kids, and that schools tend to be more effective for selected groups of students. Given that effectiveness is dependent on specific contexts, goals, and values, and that most of these are constantly changing and evolving, one last question is if effectiveness must be regarded unstable in nature, since it evolves in response to shifting demands, situations, and circumstances. To put it another way, what works now could not work tomorrow.

2.7 The challenges of good primary practice

What’s the difference between good primary practice and practice for the sake of practice? Education represents a vision of society we want our children to inherit, a picture of the people we need them to become, and a perspective of what it takes to be educated. As a result, regardless of the other aspects of effective practice, values are critical, they allow for the pursuit of a consistent and long-term value position (Kin & Kareem 2021). However, values alone are insufficient; they merely provide broad standards by which we decide whether or not something is right. The approach we select should be effective means of achieving our goals. As a result, we require knowledge of a variety of practical tactics as well as evidence of their viability and efficacy, particularly in terms of their ability to deliver learning that is consistent with the objectives we either set or adopted.

Some even argue that by talking about ‘effectiveness’ practice rather than ‘excellent’ practice, the issue of good practice is overcome in a stroke. What does it mean to be “effective” in relationship to what? It must, apparently, be in connection to a concept of what it means to be educated. As a result, good practice is both educational and operationally beneficial. As a result, effectiveness as a criteria in and of itself is nearly useless. When schools are excellent and teach many students well, the design process moves swiftly in developing nations; when schools are inadequate and just a few students are well instructed, education has a sluggish impact on growth (Huang et al. 2020). To help developing countries accelerate their socioeconomic development, schools need to teach the basic curriculum’s fundamental skills to the majority of school-aged children. As a result, in many countries, academics take precedence over social and extracurricular activities. The few research studies that looked at how education’s cognitive implications affect people’s incomes have revealed significant effects. The educated or literate people are not only more likely to join the modern wage labor market, but they are also more likely to receive greater earnings than less educated and literate employees with the same number of years of education.

2.8 Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework aims to show how this research aims to get the range of views about school effectiveness in relationship to collaborative management because there is a strongly imbedded assumption about their positive relationship. This research is not so much about trying to find the actual link between collaborative management and school effectiveness but basically it’s to trying to find the relationship between the independent variables (collaborative management, school improvement, school leadership management and effectiveness) against dependent variable(the success and effectiveness of schools).  According to (Huang et al. 2020), (Zheng et al. 2018) and (Xia 2020) there are different views among the respective respondents about the issue of collaborative management and also try to ascertain why they are saying that and to compare this with the different ideas about collaboration.

This research can be represented conceptually as shown below:

 

Independent variables Dependent variables

Figure 2.1 (Adapted from Huang et al. (2020), (Zheng et al. 2018), (Aliyyah et al. 2020), and (Xia 2020).

2.9 Conclusion

The prevailing academic viewpoint on effective school has shifted over the last 30 years, from one that largely addressed concerns about academic performance in Western societies to one that now focuses on the efficiency of teaching as an organizational operation. This shift is due to a number of factors. First, disparities in educational opportunities revealed that differences in students’ domestic and social backgrounds had a significantly higher impact on pupil achievement than schools. This conclusion is still valid today. Second, changes in social and economic structures in which schools must operate have resulted in a new set of improvements and concerns. Third, the never-ending changes and reforms aimed at enhancing school effectiveness from those responsible for students’ overall achievement have transferred the attention to school systems as an organization and its management. This has resulted in a study focus on how organizations function and how policy action might aid these institutions. According to the discussion and analysis above, the achievement of students in school appear to be affected by a number of things. Understanding the proper combination of several aspects can really assist schools in improving their performance. Furthermore, the exact combination of such school elements is highly dependent on the substance of the school culture, which must be acknowledged by the school principal in particular.

 

3.1 Overview

This chapter examines a variety of tactics and procedures for responding to research questions, as well as providing detailed information on the structure of research methodologies and the motivations for using them.

3.1 Research Design

This study will employ a quantitative research design. School managers in China were polled. This study’s items were modified from previously published research. Elements from (Zeng & Day 2019) research were used to assess collaborative management effectiveness in school. The effectiveness of collaborative management was assessed using items drawn from (Haiyan & Allan 2021) and approved (Zheng et al. 2019). (Yang et al. 2018). Items drawn from (Meyer et al. 2022) were used to assess project success. A well-planned research design ensures that the methods used match the research objectives, that high-quality data is acquired, and that the correct kind of analysis is used to answer the questions using reputable sources.

This enables valid and reliable conclusions to be drawn. Ethnographic research, case study analysis, experimental, standardized observational studies, modeling, and historic or document assessment are some of the general research models employed by social sciences. Each is unique, and the suitability of the model employed in a research project is determined by the characteristics of the human experience that a researcher seeks to capture, the contexts where these experiences arise, and the research objectives and questions or hypothesis that a researcher wishes to investigate. (Yuan et al. 2018) state that model combinations are becoming more common, citing an example in which an ethnographer could combine ethnographic data gathering techniques with survey approaches to provide depth to their investigations.

 

3.1.1 Nature of research

According to (Lu & Hallinger 2018), the goals of a research endeavor (i.e., what the researcher expects to accomplish) can serve as guiding principles for determining which method is best for a study. In their effort to distinguish between Quantitative and qualitative approaches, (Duan et al. 2018) state that the concept of quality is fundamental to the nature of reality. Quantity, on the other end, is simply a measurement of anything. Quality, according to (Ma & Marion 2021), relates to when, how, what, and where of an item – its core and atmosphere.

Quantitative research, is concerned with counts and measurements. Some experiences cannot be quantified. Quantitative research methodologies provide views that can promote recall of those experiences, like sights, smells, and sounds. This technique, therefore, do not have to be mutually exclusive. Because the respondents’ impressions of school effectiveness, collaborations, and styles of leadership are being investigated, which are difficult to quantify and measure but easy to explain in words and deeds, I want to utilize a Quantitative technique approach in this study. (Huang et al. 2020) found that open interviews were frequently given before survey questionnaires were prepared in Quantitative  research, and that in-depth findings may be utilized to figure out why two factors that were statistically associated were related. Other research suggests that such an interplay of competing variables can yield beneficial results.

3.1.2 Case Study approach

A case study entails thoroughly examining and analyzing a unit or units as a whole. (Yin & Zheng 2018) issued a warning regarding conducting a case study, stating that one must have a thorough awareness of the previous research, be a question-asker, participant, and observer, be flexible and adaptable, and have an inquisitive and unbiased mind. The case study method’s strength is the attention it pays to the case’s nuance and complexity in and of itself. This component allows a case study to provide descriptions and explanations for complicated social facts, as well as insights into the uncertainties that exist in social circumstances and interactions. It can also indicate some of the differences or disputes between the participants’ points of view.

3.1.3 Sampling Design

Sampling is the process of deciding what information to capture, of whom, as well as when. The researcher must also decide why he or she chose the “what, whom, and when.” It was an intentional sampling in terms of not only “the persons to interview or observe, but also concerning venues, events, and social systems” in the case study that I used (Shengnan & Hallinger 2021). I was intrigued not just in persons, but also in the environments in which they existed and interacted. I had to make decisions about who I wanted to work with (people). Both rural and urban land development programs, sometimes known as resettlement areas, were shared among the rural population. Effective and less effective schools were utilized as settings. It should be emphasized that, because Fujian is a tiny province, almost all schools in similar locations have nearly identical physical features and characteristics, regardless of whether they are located in cities (urban), remote areas (rural), or resettled areas. Comparative over time or comparisons between schools with more or less identical background variables can be used to determine whether a school is effective.

Researchers in the Western countries regard intake characteristics (such as pupils’ achievement before to joining a school, family background, and socioeconomic status) to be relevant (Liu & Hallinger 2018). As a result, this is where my research will begin. Perhaps this study will provide some light on Chinese teachers’ opinions and knowledge of utilizing exam results alone to label a school as ‘effective’ or ‘ineffective.’ The difficulty is that, despite the fact that the definition of “effective” and “less effective” school is extremely broad and complex, the Chinese Education ministry, as well as most teachers and school heads in Chinese, tend to interpret it in a very restricted way. The cultural and policy framework of Chinese primary schools is thus crucial for comprehending viewpoints on themes like “school effectiveness,” as well as the significance of “collaboration” and training.

It’s worth noting that in this study, only school S1 was judged ‘effective’ for resettlement school sampling. In reality, the Chinese Education ministry declared school S1 to be “ineffective.” All of the schools mostly in resettlement locations that I chose at random have extremely low test outcomes. I’m forced to choose the ‘best’ from the ‘worst.’ Keeping background considerations (geographical) constant, and as I was attempting to investigate discrepancies in outlook between ‘effective’ and ‘ineffective’ schools in this study, school Si was selected as the ‘effective’ test and school S2 as the ‘less effective’ data set, since school S1’s test results were significantly smarter than school S2. In other terms, school S1 was selected since, despite performing well in comparison to other schools with similar backgrounds (resettlement), it was nevertheless deemed useless by the Ministry. It was also a type of purposeful sampling.

Selection of schools

Four responders were picked from each of six schools, comprising of the headmaster, one deputy headteacher, and two teachers. When it came to selecting deputy head, I didn’t use any precise criteria. The overall concept behind not being precise was that all of these deputy heads would be extremely busy all of the time.

3.7 Data Collection

Prior to going home to conduct the real research, distribution, and collection of surveys, I had to write multiple letters to Fujian officials to gain access to the school. In China, clearance from the Ministry of Education’s Educational Research and Planning Division is required before any research can be conducted in schools. This was the Division in which I worked, and I was able to gain authorization without difficulty. Because my research will take place in Fujian, I also needed approval from the Department of Education. I responded to them, and they agreed, and in fact, they were excited about the prospect of conducting study in their Fujian province. Because I finished all of my correspondence before returning, I was able to focus more on my actual data collection.

The failure to create a sense of the normativity or generalization of the events recorded is a problem which is sometimes noticed in Quantitative  research. This uneasiness is exacerbated by the desire to portray Quantitative  data using illustrative or anecdotal ways. As a result, a critical reader can wonder if the researcher has only chosen data fragments that support his or her point of view. Nonetheless, (Liu 2018) claims that the use of simple counting methods can be utilized to survey the majority of a Quantitative researcher’s data and give the reader an overall view of those data. (Xia 2020) goes on to say that the practice may aid Quantitative researchers by forcing them to reconsider their interpretations of their data when simple counting indicates that their assumptions were incorrect. In order to give entire versions of social reality, Xia proposes that counting in relation to natural categories that are congruent with people’s own comprehension is not only permissible but also desired. Simple counting methods including percentages and averages were utilized in this study.

3.7.1 Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire’s questions were crafted following extensive research into the research on school success, leadership styles of principals, shared decision-making, and teamwork. During the writing of the survey questionnaire, I mostly referred to the studies of (Zhang & Sun 2018), (Chen & Guo 2020), (Wen 2018), (Huang et al. 2020), and many others (sample will be provided in the appendix). The prepared questions must be able to participate in the research questions’ responses. The questionnaire too was created with the ability of primary school teachers in mind, as well as the culture and policies of Chinese primary schools.

I discovered that some aspects of the British system for implementing shared decision making were not relevant to the Chinese context, such as issues with staffing, and that this element was left omitted. There were some open-ended questions and some closed-ended questions in the questionnaire. The completed questionnaire, which was distributed to all 24 of my respondents, had previously been pilot-tested with three Chinese primary school teachers. They were granted a few days to respond, and when the surveys were ready, they called me.

 

With those three teachers, the replies were carefully reviewed and debated. The responses were utilized to reorganize and recreate the questionnaire’s questions. During this transaction, there was also a huge issue since one of the teachers did not grasp what collaboration was. “How about my future participants, do they comprehend this word?” I asked her, and I was already doubting myself. True, as previously stated, some of these did not comprehend the meaning of those words.

The research data was sometimes used to supplement the information acquired through the questionnaire. These two kinds of data have been used to support and complement one another. The complexity of the data acquired, as well as the distinct sets of sentiments and viewpoints expressed by my 24 responders, would be sufficient in and of itself. In a Quantitative  method, the quantity of the sample is less important than the broader feeling of experience gained from the observations that are recorded. Tables, averages, and percentages were employed to make the data easier to understand. Because if words are used the majority of the time, the description may be lengthy. Also, because my research is a case study, it will only reflect the six instances and not the entire world.

As a result, the validity would remain. The study objectives were also modified several times in order to make them clearer and to make the analysis easier to follow. The research objectives and data analysis were then organized to first discuss concerns of education quality, then concerns of school management, particularly use of collaborative management, and lastly concerns of the Way Forward for Chinese primary schools, especially with regard to headteacher and SMT member professional development programs.

I believed it would be preferable for responders to write down their personal details, such as their age, academic experience, qualification, and other details, rather than asking them vocally because they would be ashamed to answer them. Questionnaires could also be a more effective way of creating connections and uncovering underlying trends, as well as getting basic data that would otherwise take longer to gather using anthropological methods. There were other questions about school effectiveness, the headteacher’s managerial style, and training staff in the survey. The majority of the replies were again organized into tables for easy comparison and debate. The 24 participants were given plenty of time to complete the questionnaire during the fieldwork. In three to four days, the majority of them completed their responses.

3.7.2 Document Search

I needed some material for my analysis in the later stages of the research, so I had to seek and read over some of the materials in each of the six schools. For instance, I was able to browse over the schools’ ‘layouts,’ which essentially contain much of the schools’ successes or failures, as well as their goals for increased productivity and success in both academics and extra-curricular areas. The outcomes of previous years’ examinations were also included in these blueprints. Every five years, these ‘layouts’ are meant to be updated. I was also given access to the schools’ enrollment books for the previous three years, both for instructors and pupils. Again, I had some difficulties obtaining accurate information because some schools’ documents and plans were out of current. I had to meet with the school administrators at times in order to get the information I required.

With all of the chasing, running, chatting, discussing, listening intently, observing, and trying to annotate what my responders were talking about while also connecting them in my thoughts and field notes, doing my research study was the most intriguing and busy moment of my life. I was attempting to connect the findings from all four methodologies to my survey questions and to identify themes that I might write on in my analysis of data. According to (Zheng et al. 2018), “Creating categories from Quantitative  approach appears to be more of a right-brain-left-brain exercise. One role is to distill categories, while the other is to maintain focus on the big image so that the classifications are accurate “. I eventually came up with the topics that would aid me further in my analysis of data after more conversation with my instructor, friends, and personal reading, as stated in the following Chapters.

3.8 Problems that arose during the research

During my research, I ran into various difficulties. This is a regular occurrence for Quantitative studies, according to (Hallinger et al. 2019), who describes it in his research biography. Even after the pilot test to test the study questions and after reconstructing and rebuilding them, a lot of digging, explanations, and redesigning of the initial questions had to be conducted during the interview, which consumed a lot of my time and occasionally the time of the respondents. For instance, there were times when I had to quickly explain the three forms of leadership to such teachers since they said they were unfamiliar with them. Despite all of the difficulties experienced during the fieldwork, I was able to effectively complete my data collecting.

3.9 Data Analysis

The data collection and analysis were done at the same time throughout the study. The data was interpreted using a sifting procedure that resulting in a categorizing of issues of which instructive examples and transcribed segments were obtained. I went over the field notes and transcripts, finding patterns and ideas that would help me organize the entire project and interpret the results. Such that, rather than being optimistic about the relationships, I grew increasingly curious in the respondents’ perspectives in light of the literature findings I had gathered as well as the ‘officially’ Chinese ideas and prescriptions. I depended on my interviews, questionnaires, and observations all through my study, as well as informal talks and dialogues and data acquired through document searches.

In order to ensure more validity, I matched my discoveries to other studies on the same topics undertaken in both industrialized and developing countries. It was a grueling and unbelievable experience attempting to make sense of the data over time, despite the fact that raw data has little value on its own. In the course of writing up the results, I relied on my supervisor, friends, and my own abilities and insight. I did my research as objectively as possible, keeping in mind that the final products should reflect the perspectives of the persons who were researched as precisely as feasible (Ulfatin et al. 2022). I also had to keep reminding myself that the purposeful sampling strategy (school heads, deputy heads, and school teachers as triangulation of data, and interviews, questionnaires, observation, and document analyze as method survey research) must focus on providing a rich and comprehensive image of the social phenomena under investigation. The study themes were conceived through my reading, talks, observations, questionnaire analysis, and, most importantly, interviews.

I next looked into the following themes in order to address my three research questions.

  1. School effectiveness.
  2. The management styles of school heads are mostly tied to collaborative management.
  • The ‘Way Ahead’ for Chinese principals, focusing on talent management and collaborative professional training.

3.10 Measurements

Measurements are critical in research because they indicate which statistical methods are appropriate for use in the study. The measurement methodologies utilized in this investigation are listed below.

3.10.1 Descriptive Statistics

Almost all study considers descriptive analysis to be a fundamental and significant session. This is due to the fact that it includes a descriptive of the population employed in the study sample, such as demographic data and all relevant characteristics of the demographic as a whole. Demographic profiles allow the study to gather information like gender, educational level, and residence location. As a result, descriptive statistic is employed in this research to determine the means and frequencies of demographic data in order to avoid any prejudice or inconsistency in the study’s assessment measurement.

3.10.2 Preliminary Analysis

Preliminary assessment is a technique for determining whether or not a component of a questionnaire is relevant and reliable. As a result, reliability and validity tests are critical in ensuring that the questionnaire is reliable and capable of supporting the research. Although a pilot study is being undertaken, there is no guarantee that actual test will yield the desired results. As a result, a pilot survey of the research instrument’s reliability and validity must be done.

3.10.3 Hypotheses Test

Based on past theories or studies, hypotheses justify the relationship between variables in the study. It’s being used to conduct a systematic examination of the provided models relying on the sample. The data scientist can fairly say that the model matches the data depending on the test results.

3.10.4 Ordinal Linear Regression

Ordinal linear analysis techniques were employed in this study to investigate and describe the relationship between independent variables of perceived value, perceived usefulness and ease of its use, and self-efficacy for eLearning as well as the dependent variable of students’ performance. It also evaluates if the model is compatible with the findings.

3.10.5 Model Fitting Information

To ensure model match, the Like hood-ratio testing will be employed. The log probability ratio between the whole linear regression and the simplified linear regression is used to calculate the value of the consistency test. If the normality test yields a significant result (p 0.05), the model fits correctly.

3.10.6 Goodness of Fit

The goodness of model fit will be used to see if the independent variables forecast the learners’ performance. So when model has a reasonable goodness of fit, the deviation statistic should not be statistically significant (p must be greater than 0.05).

3.11 Ethical Consideration

Since any research involves humans, it is vital to maintain their anonymity and privacy. Furthermore, it is critical to ensure that respondents are informed of the research’s goal and have the option of participating or not participating in the study. As a result, before beginning the poll, the researcher can make certain that participants have received enough information about the study’s goal and the research’s overall goal.

3.12 Conclusion

The data in this study will be subjected to a variety of tests and analysis to confirm its reliability and validity. It also improves the consistency of the results, which can help with genuine study analysis.

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